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Gomes, Jose Coelho 


Empire of Brazil 


Washington, D.C 











Gomes, Jose Coelho. 

Empire of Brazil. Commercial and emigrational guide to 
Brazil. Compiled and translated from official publications, by 
Jose Coelho Gomes, acting secretary of the Brazilian legation, 
Washington, U. S. A. Washington, J. P. Wright, printer, 

60 p. 24«. 

1. Brazil — Emig. & Immig. 2. Brazil — Econ. condit. 

Library of Congress 
Copyright 1885: 25469 






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Compiled and Translated from Official Publications 






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This work is compiled from Brazilian Official Publications, 
with a chapter on « Ocean Transportation " added, to show the 
Agricultural, Mineral and other resources of the Empire, with 
a view of promoting Commerce, Emigration and Internal 

Special attention is called to the chapters on Coffee Produc- 
tion, xMineral Resources, River Navigation, and to the other 
official statements showing the extent and resources of the 
Empire, the prosperous condition of the colonies, and the op- 
portunities for the advantageous investment of capital. 

It is the settled policy of the Imperial Government to grant 
liberal concessions for railroads, steamboat lines, central 
sugar mills ; for working gold, diamond and other mines, and 
for many other purposes. A large amount of English, French 
and German capital has been invested in many of these enter- 

The absence of North American enterprise in Brazil is 
caused mainly by a want of correct information upon the sub- 
ject in the United States-a want which this publication will 
It 18 thought, fully supply. ' 












Ist Reception on arrival at the Port of Rio de Janeiro. 
2d. Board and Lodging at the "Ilha das Flores Hotel, from 
the date of arrival to the departure of the immigrants for their 

destination. , , ^ v x^ ^.v^ 

3d Free transportation by railroad or steamer lines to tne 
nearest point of the locality selected by the immigrants. 

4th The grant of a suitable tract of land lor cultivation, duly 
surveyed and measured. The area of each tract to be 75 acres. 
The maximum price is 495$000 Reis, equal to about two hun- 
dred and sixty dollars, in American money, and the mini- 
mum 123$000 Reis, equal to sixty-four dollars and seventy-five 
cents— according to the quality of the soil. t ^x. ^ a 

5th. It is optional with the immigrant to pay for the l^nd 
either in cash or in five years by installments ; in the latter case 
the price will be increased 20 per cent. 

6th The immigrant is at liberty to begin the payment by in- 
stallments from the third year of his occupation of the land 
Six per cent, will be deducted from the amount of the payment 
made by him prior to that time. ^ ^ . .,• 

7th Occupation of the land assigned to the immigrant is obli- 
gatory on his part. The inducements do not, however, stop 
here The Government intends not only to facilitate the trans- 
Dortation of the immigrants from their native country to Brazil, 
but also, to award prizes in money for the best products pre- 
sented to the Colonial exhibitions to be held annually in the 
centres of foreign origin, and is now organizing commissions for 
the purpose of developing on the greatest possible scale its area 
of uncultivated lands, and dividing it into lots of 75 acres 
each f »r the settlement of immigrants. The lands on the lines 
of railroads, or bordering the highways or on the shores ot navi- 
gable rivers, are of course preferable. 



ilssistancB givanta Immigrants. 

The management of immigration is regularly organized in 
Brazil. A department entitled " General Inspection of lands 
and of Colonization," with an adequate force of employees in the 
various branches of the service, superintends everything relating 
to the reception, accommodation, destination and settlement of 
immigrants. It keeps a record of every colonist and takes notes 
of the locality selected by them. It is, therefore, very easy to 
furnish on demand every information concerning any immigrant. 

The survey of the limits of public lands and their division in 
lots for the settlement of immigrants is connected with the same 
department. That branch is under the supervision of agents 
who enjoy the full confidence of the Government. The lots for 
the settlement of colonists are surveyed, in preference, in the 
vicinity of suburbs and centres of colonial origin already estab- 
lished. As much as possible, the shores of navigable rivers and 
the proximity of highways are selected without, however, losing 
eight of the quality of the soil and of the required conditions for 
proper cultivation. 

The immigrant becomes owner of the land from the date of 
his occupation of it; to that effect, a provisory deed is delivered 
to him, which will be exchanged for a full title as soon as the last 
payment for said land shall have been made. 

The payment is optional with the immigrant, who can make 
it either in cash or on time. In the former case the full title is de- 
livered to him. In the latter, that is to say, should the immi- 
grant prefer to pay for his lot by installments, the disbursements 
will be made during the five years following the second year of 
his occupation, with an increase of 20 per cent, upon the original 
price of his lot. Thus, the immigrant has seven years before 
him to free himself from debt. There is also another advantage 
worthy of his consideration, and that is, he can, within the two 
first years, cultivate his land, unincumbered, since the obligation 
to pay the small yearly installments begins only from the third 

The good quality of the land granted to him, the resources he 
finds in the sale of his products, either on the highways near his 
lot, or in the neighborhood of localities crossed by the roads 
which bring it into communication with the great centres of con- 

sumption, or with sea or river ports, the facilities he meets with 
in his transactions by the aid of his countrymen already settled 
in prosperous centres, as is, at present, almost every former col- 
ony, everything tends to help the immigrant to reduce his debt 
gradually, and to obtain the desired title, which makes him the 
absolute owner of his lot, and leaves him free to dispose of it as 

he pleases. 

It is needless to add, that the immigrant, who has the means, 
can, if he likes, clear himself from debt at any time without the 
necessity of waiting for the period fixed for that purpo^ ; and, 
on the other hand, he benefits by the reduction of 6 per cent, 
corresponding to the amount of the disbursements made in ad- 

On their landing at Rio de Janeiro, the immigrants will find 
everything they need, until their arrival at their destination. 

Every steamer from European and American ports is visited 
by an Agent of the Administration of Lands and Colonization, 
who, speaking French, Italian, German or English, offers the im- 
migrants on board, in the name of the Government, accommoda- 
tions at the special establishment on the " Ilha das Flores," a 
picturesque Island in the magnificent bay of Rio de Janeiro, 
about three-quarters of an hour distant from the city, and favored 
with a delightful climate constantly cooled by the breeze from 
the sea, which contributes to make it healthful and agreeable. 

The excellent location of that Island is fully justified by the 
remarkable sanitary condition of over 12,000 immigrants, who 
have been accommodated therefor 15 months, and though, during 
that same period, disease common in the hot season, prevailed in 
the City, no syniptons of any indispositions whatever were found 
on the Island. However, to be prepared for unexpected cases, 
a doctor is connected with the hotel where there is a pharmacy 
well stocked with the most necessary medicines. The patients 
are cared for in an infirmary complete in every way, forming a 
part of the establishment. In grave cases, they are sent to the 
General Hospital. 

Special boats fitted for that purpose, carry safely and with the 
greatest possible comfort, the immigrants who accept the offer 
made to them by the Agent of the Administration. 

Upon their arrival at the " Ilha das Flores," they are accom- 
panied by an Agent of the hotel, and are immediately accommo- 
dated, while another employee goes through the required formal- 
ities at the Custom House to secure the baggage, which is safely 


After having been comfortably lodged, the immigrants present 
themselves, one by one, with their respective families at the office 
of the Director, for the purpose of declaring their intentions as 
to the location selected, by them, their nationality, age, profession 
and the country they come from. These declarations are very 
useful for their relatives, in Europe or America, who desire to 
obtain information concerning them ; a matter of frequent occur- 

The immigrants go wherever they please ; no locality is forced 
upon tftem , they are perfectly free to select their own destina- 

After declaring their choice of location where they desire to 
settle, and staying at the hotel during the necessary time to rest 
from the fatigues of the voyage, etc., the immigrants are gradually 
forwarded to the places they have selected. Those who prefer 
to go to the Provinces of S. Paulo and of Minas, or to the inter- 
mediate places of the Province of Rio de Janeiro, leave by the 
D. Pedro II Railroad; on the other hand, those who wish to re- 
main in the Provinces near the coast, take the steamers which ply 
between them and other localities. 

In every case, they are accompanied by an agent of the Ad- 
ministration, who speaks several languages, and upon whom 
rests the responsibility for the proper installation of the colo- 
nists, and the transportation of their baggage, etc. 

In the Province of S. Paulo, there is an administration sim- 
ilar to that at the Capital, and which acts for the Provincial 
Government. Thus, on their arrival, the colonists meet with 
the same reception, the same hospitality, and receive every- 
thing to proceed on their journey. 

On leaving Rio de Janeiro by the morning train, the immi- 
grants arrive at S. Paulo, in the same evening. An agent 
waits for them at the station, to take them to the Provincial 

In the Provinces of Espirito Santo, Parana, Santa Catharina, 
and Rio Grande do Sul, the immigrants arrive in great 
number, owing to the numerous colonial population already 
there. Government Agents receive them on board, see to their 
landing facilities, as may be required, and the means of trans- 
portation to the Colonial Centres they may have selected for 
residence. The Government beare the expenses of transporta- 
tion either by land or by water ; also for board and lodging 
until their departure for their final destination. 

The Government intends to establish, in the Provinces men- 

tioned, a regular Agency of Immigration like the one now at 
Rio de Janeiro and S. Paulo, and to which the General Gov- 
ernment will give every assistance in its power. 

Hotel of Ilha das Flores. 

This Hotel for the accommodation of immigrants, situated 
on the Island das Flores, is a large structure arranged for the 
reception of 1000 immigrants, at the minimum, and capable, 
in case of necessity, of receiving 1500, easily. 

The principal or main building is divided into four large halls, 
well ventilated, and includes dormitories and special accommo- 
dations for families. 

Moreover, the same building contains three rooms set apart 
for the infirmary, a physician's room for consultations, two 
offices for the clerks, store rooms, and lodgings for minor em- 
ployees. A fine and large balcony surrounds the whole struc- 

The kitchen, pantry and the necessary material required for 
as many immigrants as can be admitted, are in a separate 
building. The dining-room is provided with convenient mar- 
ble-top tables and commodious benches and everything neces- 
sary to seat and feed comfortably 400 persons. 

The food for the immigrants is wholesome, plentiful and 
well prepared. Great care is taken to give them, as far as pos- 
sible, the fare to which they are accustomed accordmg to the 
usages of each nationality. They have three meals a day. 
At 8 o'clock, breakfast of coffee, bread and butter. At 1 
o'clock, dinner is served, composed of rice, or macaroni soup, 
beans, potatoes and other vegetables, with meat and bread ; 
for dessert, oranges, bananas, — everthing in abundance. At 
6 o'clock, supper of coftee, bread and butter. 

The departures always taking place in the morning, the im- 
migrants have an early breakfast, and are moreover provided 
wim rations for luncheon during the journey. 

The hotel for the immigrants is provided with the floating 
material necessary for the shipping and landing of the colonists. 

In extraordinary cases, requisition is made upon the naval 
and military arsenals, which, conformably to the ordere from 
the Government, lend their assistance to facilitate the regular- 
ity of the transportation. 

Access to the Island is rendered easy by a bridge, upon 
which are erected the necessary tackle and gear for putting 


the bagffage on shore, and which is stored in a large and safe 
depot, close by the bridge, and connected with small cars, on 
rails, which carry it promptly to the proper place. 

The Government intends to increase the accommodations so 
as to receive a greater number of immigrants. It would then 
profit by the exceptional conditions of the Ilha das Flores, 
which, owing to its mild climate, picturesque appearance, variety 
of vegetation and delightful situation in the bay, a short dis- 
tance from the village of Baretto, offers every possible comfort 
to those who have just arrived from a long voyage. The vil- 
lage of Baretto is a lovely suburb of the City of Nictheroy, the 
county town of the Province of Rio de Janeiro, and about 50 
minutes trip from the Capital of the Empire. 

The Hotel is under the management of an official appointed 
by the Government. His title is " Director of the Ilha das 

The persons employed are under his control, and are suffi- 
cient in number and divided in categories according to the na- 
ture of the duties assigned them. 

The Director and employees furnish the immigrants with 
every kind of information needed for their installation. 

Leave to go to the city either on business or pleasure, is 
granted by the Director to every immigrant who makes an 
application for it ; he can, should he desire it, be accompanied 
by an employee of the Hotel, if he wishes to exchange money 
or purchase the necessary implements for his work, etc. 



The immigrants, who do not wish to be entertained on the 
Ilha das Flores, previous to leaving for their destination, are 
entitled, during the three months following their arrival, to 
their transportation to the point in the Empire where they 
desire to go, upon application to the Department of General 
Inspection of Lands and Colonization, Travessa do Pa90 3. 
The transportation is free of charge, and furnished on the 
simple presentation of their passport. 

An employee of the Administration daily superintends the 
departure of the immigrants, either by the D. Pedro 11 Rail- 
road or by steamers. 


Until 1878, the Imperial Government has expended con 


siderable sums of money for the developement of colonization 
in the country. If, owing to circumstances which we are not 
called upon to discuss here, the advantages derived do not 
compensate for the numerous sacrifices made by the ^""^ate to 
attain that object, yet, the existing colonial establishmei are 
there to prove, by the present prosperity of most of them he 
assistance given by tlie Government to immigration, also 
the profits and results offered to industrious labor by the woi 
derful soil of Brazil. 

Foreign colonization has, in preference, been directed toward 
the Provinces where the soil and climate are best adapted to it. 
Therefore, it is in the Provinces of Espirito Santo, Parana, 
Santa Cathaniia and Rio Grande do Sul, where there have been 
founded the Colonial centres which, to-day are in a great part, 
transformed into flourishing and prosperous villages. 

The Provinces of Rio de Janeiro and S. Paulo, have also 
received a large number of immigrants; but in these three 
Provinces they have either been engaged by planters 
(fazendeiros) or established themselves as small property holders 
on avmlable lands. 

German colonization has been successfully tried in the pro- 
vinces of Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catharina. 
The beautiful city of Petropolis, the summer residence of the 
Imperial Court, Nova Friburgo in the province of Rio de 
Janeiro, 8. Leopoldo, in the province of Rio Grande do Sul, 
Joinville, Blumenau, etc., in the province of Santa Catharina, 
show the results of the experiment. 

In the colony of Porto Real, now emancipated, there is in 
full operation, a central factory, managed by the Agricultural 
Union Company, and which is of great advantage to its inhabi- 
tants. That colony offers also, a proof of the good result 
obtained from foreign colonization in the province of Rio de 
Janeiro. Frenchmen, Italians and natives of different coun- 
tries live there in perfect harmony, and are all engaged in 
agricultural pursuits from which they derive satisfactory profits. 

The province of S. Paulo has a few colonial centres in the 
vicinity of the county town. The mildness of its climate and 
the fertility of the soil, cause it to be preferred by the inhabi- 
tants of Northern Italy, who, with the assistance of the perfectly 
organized Provincial Agency of Immigration, find it easy to 
settle there. 



In every other province of the Empire, the immigrant meeta 
with every condition needed for his establishment. 

The northern provinces, although much warmer, are favored 
with an agreeable temperature owing to their being cooled by 
sea breeze ; the interior offers, on a very wide zone, the charms 
of an almost eternal spring ; cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and 
cacao, which are the principal products of the region extending 
from Bahia to the Manranhao; coffee, the production of which 
is already developed upon the chain of Baturite, in the province 
of Ceara and in many other localities; cereals and edible 
roots of different kinds, without referring to fine plains well 
adapted for raising cattle, are among the advantages offered by 
the northern provinces to laborious immigrants intending to 
cultivate those products. On the other hand, should they prefer 
to carry their energy to the regions watered by the Amazon 
and its numerous tributaries, on whose shores nature furnishes 
immense resources to every condition and age ; the gathering 
of India-rubber which is found in abundance is alone suflScient 
to make the fortunes of an immense number of energetic immi- 

The great river Amazon, with its tributaries, offers on Bra- 
zilian territory a length of more than 27,000 miles navigable 
for large steamboats, and serves by its connections aa a channel 
of cheap and convenient communications with all the markets 
of the world, and with the Tocantins a direct communication 
with five of the principal provinces of the Empire and with the 
Republics of Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador and BoUvia. 
The completion of the Maderia railroad, one hundred miles 
around the Maderia falls, will extend the steam communication 
of this great tributary of the Amazon nearly to the Pacific coast. 

At or near all of the established colonies, the government 
keeps commissions of engineers whose duties are to survey and 
measure lots for the settlement of immigrants who desire to 
take immediate possession, and take charge of the installation 
of colonists according to their selection. 

A ^eat number of less important colonial centres, the old 
colonies, emancipated at different times, and whose names 
follow, are very prosperous; some of them have been raised to 
the rank of villages and parishes. 


The colony of Rio Novo, now parish of San Antonio de Rio 
Novo, 18 composed of five territories included in the important 



municipalities of Itapemirim and of Benevente, watered by 
the two rivers of the same name, and which offer good navi- 
gable facilities. This colonial centre, crossed^by fine roads, is 
prosperous owing to the trade in coffee, the exportation of 
which, in 1884, reached about 3,684,200 pounds. That impor- 
tant product to which must be added the flour of Manioc, 
Indian corn, beans and other cereals, has been shipped not 
only from the ports of Benevente and of Itapemirim, visited 
by many sailing vessels and steamers belonging to a coasting 
company, which makes two trips per month to Kio de Janeiro 
and vice versa, but also from the port of the county town with 
which the fifth territory is connected by means of excellent 

The population is about 5,000, of whom more than 2,500 are 
Italians, 300 Germans and Swiss, 200 Austrians, 300 Portu- 
guese and 200 Frenchmen, Belgians and Dutchmen. The 
remainder is composed of Brazilians and the children of colo- 

This village has a fine Catholic church and schools for both 


The colony of Castello is situated in the municipality of 
Benevente, on the shore of the river of that name and of its 
tributaries. Emancipated in 1881, under the village name of 
Alfredo Chaves and founded in 1880, it grew rapidly. Its 
population is over 1,350, of whom 1158 are Italians and the 
remainder Brazilians, Germans, French and Portuguese. Its 
inhabitants devote themselves in preference to raising cattle, 
and provide the neighborhood with excellent cheese, sausages 
and other similar products. They also cultivate cereals for 
their own use and coffee for home consumption and export. 
The colony has excellent roads, school buildings and other 
necessary public improvements. 


This colony was founded in 1847. emancipated in 1866 and 
made a parish in the following year. Its population is over 
3,000 of various nationalities ; The German element predomi- 
nates. They grow every kind of cereals for their own con- 
sumption, cultivate with success coffee and export it through 
the city of Victoria, with which it is in communication by 
means of good roada. The coffee product of this colony was 
above 1,818,000 pounds in 1884. The inhabitants appear to 
enjoy a certain comfort ; there are some among them, who are 


known to have made handsome fortunes. They have Catholic 
and Protestant churches and good school buildings. A railroad 
granted by the Provincial Government, and now under con- 
sideration will pass through the villages of Castello and of Rio 
JN ovo, and connect with the port of the county town. 


This colony is situated in the municipalities of Victoria 
(county town of the province) and of Santa Cruz : It was 
founded m 1857 and emancipated in 1882. It is composed of 
three groups, the most important of which is Cachociro, situated 
near the port of that name, upon the Santa Maria river, which 
IS crossed by steamers communicating with the county town 
It contains a population of over 8,000 of different nationalities,* 
(Germans and Italians however, predominate. They cultivate 
cereals in sufficient quantity for their own use, and coffee for 
export. More than 3,090,000 lbs. of that valuable product was 
exported by the colony last year. Church and school accoma- 
dations are ample. The survey for the railway from Victoria 
to JHatividade, m the province of Minas Geraes, is completed. 
Ihe government has entered into a contract with an Endish 
company for building the line, and guaranteed an interest of 
6 per cent, upon the capital. It passes through the old colony 
and a great tract of uncultivated lands in the vicinitv In 
the village of Cachociro there is a profitable and central mill in 
full operation, provided with improved machinery for the prepa- 
ration of coffee. ^ 

The colonial villages of Espirito Santo, pay to the Provin- 
cial treasury, a sum exceeding 70,000$000 Ks. produced by the 
tax ot 17 Reis per two and one-tenth lbs. of exported coffee. 


The province of Parana, has on account of its geographical 
position the mean temperature of the northern portion of Eu- 
rope and the United States. It is divided by a range of moun- 
tains where there is a delightful climate, presenting to the 
immigrants the most desirable facilities for securing homes 
On one side, they find a large area of excellent lands where 
every kind of products indiginous to cold latitudes, can be 
cultivated with profit ; on the other, immense plains, suitable 
to those of temperate zones. 

As soon as the additional means of communication, now 
under consideration are open, the object of which is to bring 


nearer the great centres of consumption and the extensive area 
of uncultivated lands in the interior, including the plains of 
Palmas and Guarapuava, well known as much for their excel- 
lent conditions for raising cattle, as for their wonderful fertility; 
the province of Parana will be one of the points most sought by 
the immigrants from the north of Europe and the United 
States, who will meet there with a great number of fellow 
countrymen already settled advantageously in the following 
colonial villages : 

AssuNGUY COLONY. — Founded in 1860, and situated 62 
miles east of Curityba, county town of the province, and at 37 
miles from the city of Castro, it is situated at 1312 feet above 
the level of the sea. Emancipated in 1882. Its population is 
about 3,000, of whom two thirds are Brazilians, while the 
remainder are 290 Germans, 200 Frenchmen, and 250 English- 
men ; the Swiss, Italians and Spaniards are in the minority. 
They cultivate dift'erent kinds of cereals as well as sugar cane- 
some colonists owning sugar mills and distilleries for the manu- 
facture of brandy. The value of the annual exportation is 
above 125,000$000, and the importation amounts to about 
70,000$000. The colony is well provided with buildings both 
public and private. 

The Argblina Colony. — This colony was founded in 1859 and 
is situated 1 mile from the county town on the important road 
of Graciosa. Its inhabitants, French, Germans, Swiss, English 
and Swedes, not numbering above 140. They cultivate cereals 
and potatoes, and are also engaged in horticulture. 

The Thomas Coelho Colony. — Founded in 1876, 10 miles 
from the county town. Population of 1,550. Its inhabitants 
cultivate cereals, tobacco, etc., which they sell in the town of 

The D. Augusto Colony.— Founded in 1877, 8 miles from 
the county town, exclusively inhabited by Poles numbering 
about 300, who devote themselves to the same kind of labor as 
the settlers of the Thomas Coelho Colony. 

The Rivierre Colony. — Founded in 1877, on the Matto 
Grosso road, 10 miles from the city of Curityba. Population 
of 370, the majority of whom are Polish, Prussian and Sile- 
sian. Potatoes, rye and other cereals are cultivated. 

The Orleans Colony. — Founded in 1877, 6 miles from the 


county town. It contains 400 inhabilants, almost all Poles, 
Frenchmen and Italians, who devote themselves to the cultiva^ 
tion of wheat, rye, Indian corn, beans, potatoes, etc., etc. 

The Santo Iqnacio Colony.— Founded in 1876, 2 miles from 
the county town, on the shore of the Bariguv river, on a level 
ground covered with magnificent forests; it contains a popula- 
tion of 700, most of whom are Silesiaus. These colonists do 
but httle farmmg, preferring to be wood cutters. The wood is 
sold m the county town. 

The Lamenha Colony.— Founded in 1876, 5 miles from the 
county town. Its inhabitants devote themselves with great 
energy, to its grape growing and general agricultural pureuits, 
producmg excellent wine, rye, wheat, potatoes, etc. The popu 
lation ift over 900, almost all of them I'oles. 

The Santa Candida Colony.— Founded in 1874, 5 miles 
from the county town, on the road of Graciosa. Its population 
IS 370, Poles and Swiss, who devote themselves to agriculture. 

The Abranches and Pilarzinho Colonies.— Founded in 
1870 on the communal land of the countv town, from which 
tney are distant about 4 miles. The population is about 600, for 
the most part Poles and Irish, who cultivate cereals, etc. 

The Muricy Colony.— Founded in 1878, 3 miles from the 
city of S. Jose dos Pinhaes. It covers an area of 1,250 000 
square yards, divided in 79 lots and inhabited by 350 indivi- 
duals who grow grapes, make wine and cultivate rye, Indian 
corn and many otlier cereals. 

The Antonio Reboucas Colony.— Founded in 1878 in the 
municipality of Campo Largo, 11 miles from the County Town 
It contains a population of 162 Italians who cultivate rye, In- 
dian corn, potatoes, etc. 

The Novo Tyrol Colony.— Founded in 1878, 16 miles from 
the City of S. Jose dos Pinhaes; it contains a tine population 
of over 300, neariy all of them Tyrolese, who devote them- 
selves to various branches of agriculture, but specially to that 
of wheat, rye, potatoes and several other kinds of cereals, and 
to manufacturing wine from numerous kinds of grapes grown 
with great success. 

The Alfredo Chaves Colony.— Founded in 1878,12 miles 
from Curityba (County Town of the Province) with a population 
of 160 of Italian nationality, all farmers. 


The Inspector Carvalho Colony. — Founded in 1878, 18 
miles from the county town, in the municipality of S. Jose dos 
Pinhaes, and situated upon the lands adjoining the Muricy 
Colony. It has 130 inhabitants of Polish and Italian nation- 
ality, who are engaged in agriculture. 

The Senador Dantas Colony. — Founded upon the com- 
munal lands of the county town, whereon more than 170 Ital- 
ians have settled ; they are successfully engaged in agriculture. 

The D. Pedro and S. Venancio Colony. — Founded in the 
vicinity of the county town and of Zacarias, in the municipal- 
ity of S, Jose dos Pinhaes. Its population exceeds 400, engag- 
ed in agriculture. 

Besides these colonies, there are, in the interior, several colo- 
nial centres inhabited by about 1,000 persons, mostly Russians. 

These centres are : In the municipality of Palmeira, the ham- 
lets of Marcondes, N. S. do Lago, Santa Quiteria, Alegrete, 
Hartman and Papagayos Novos. In the municipality of Lapa, 
the hamlets of Johannisdorf, and Maricultal. In the munici- 
pality of Ponta Grossa, is the Octavio Colony. 

In the municipality of iMorretes, the old and important Col- 
ony of Nova Italia, is composed of 12 villages, including a 
population of about 1500 of different nationalities, but where 
the Italians are in majority. All these nucleus communicate 
with each other, by good roads, connected with the main road 
of Graciosa, which leads to the cities of Morretes, Antonina, 
&c.; centres which consume their products, consisting in cereals, 
potatoes and coffee. 

Province of Santa Catharina. 

The Bluraenau Colony, to-day, the city of the same name, 
including two parishes, is situated in the valley formed by the 
Itajahy river from whose port a large quantity of the products 
of that important centre of population is exported. 

It was founded in 1852, by Dr. Hermann Blumenau. Hav- 
ing, soon after, been acquired by the State, it made rapid de- 
velopment, and was emancipated in 1880. Its population is 
over 17,000; German colonists are in majority. There are 
also a great many Italians, Portuguese, etc. 

Agriculture is the principal pursuit of the inhabitants of that 
ancient colony ; they use 150 ploughs, and cultivate sugar cane 
in preference, producing over 880,000 pounds of sugar and 
77,000 gallons of brandy annually. 



In addition to that precious conHugent, thev export Indian 
corn beans, nee and flour of manioc, potatoes Xd Jie^ 
dried meat, tobacco, cigars, timber, etc., ete ' ^ ' 

^fK **"i^ contains several knitting mills, for woreted and 
other stutts, nme cigar factories, nine^ breweries, one distileTv 
one soap factory, two typographical cstablishnmnte foondri^' 
copper-sm.ths, tanneries, shie factories andTveral tailor rj 
^rpenter shops, etc. There are also forty saw miHs worked bv 
ric?' ^^'.7^ "T^' **^"'"' ^"^ 27 girist mills fo7eornaS 
?27o,51^0?r^olt:ril*t:r^^-'« over 400,0001000 or 

The city of S. Paulo de Blnmenau is connected with the nort 
of Itejahy by the river of that name, of easy navSon ^ 

the CHv Harl?' r^T' ^"J''^'"g^' '^^ Cath!«« oh^rches, 
ary insfruS iTJ "f-^*^ ' ?"^ ""? ,««t«''li«h'nentfor second! 

Th?!^o f \ }^ •'"""*^ '* healthful and temperate. 

Ine area of that ancient cobnv is fthnnt 9 471 nnA„ .u 

cultivated portion is above SfiJoJ^^ Inlfl^l^li^: 
are laj^e tracts of uncultivated land suitable, by TteSellent 
quality, to every kind of cultivation. ^ excellent 

in TssV'lf™.^^-^^"*^?' '" ^^^^' ""'I emancipated 
ans and 1 Sn^P" *'°" V^^^ ^'^"^' <=omposed of 2,500 ItaU 
TL^^ r^, Germans ; the remainder belongs to other na- 
tionalties (including the children of foreigners.) 

The inhabitants derive profits not only from the cnltivaHnn 
ot sugar cane and cereaU, but are also eng^ed i^ various h. 
tSf/^.r •P'^'^"°*« '^^"•''•^ those of ICenau Tnd co": 
t?e c tv The T"T "^ !*" ^^Portation through the jJrTof 
tde city^ The ex-colony also contains saw mills ffrist mill? 
and different factories, one of them for weaving si'ir ' 

m;ii° *'^*^°«'T« «?* of carriage roads upon a surface of 261 
miles and good mule trails, on an area of 95 miles K^thin 

^b other. The ancient county town is to-dav the nari«V. «f 
8. Luiz Gonza^, 23 miles from the port of iShy wiA^Lh 

The former colonial limits included several different dis- 
tnc s, among which is, to^ay, Nova Trento, whercoSerf" 
ble improvements have been made. The climate like S^^^^ 


Blumenau, is healthful and agreeable. There is still a great 
amount of uncultivated land of well known fertility. 

The D. Francisca Colony. — The development of this colony 
has been very rapid; the beautiful city of Join ville forms its 
centre. It is situated on the banks of the Cachoeira river, at 
a short distance from the important port of S. Francisco do 
Sul, which will probably be the starting point of the projected 
D. Pedro I railroad. The Imperial Government has made 
contracts with an English company now engaged in studying 
the route, and to which it guarantees an interest of six per cent, 
upon the capital used in the enterprise. Its population is about 
23,800, divided between the city of Joinville and the village of 
8. Bento; which includes the territory of the D. Francisca 
Colony. The majority of the inhabitants is German. A 
road of 251 miles is kept in good condition and crosses the 
principal parts of the colony. The transportation is made 
by 502 drays, each capable of carrying 6,600 lbs. There are 
also more than 4,000 beasts of burden, numerous boats of 
different tonnage, and two steamers, one of which was 
built at Joinville. The inhabitants are engaged in various 
industries, but especially in agriculture ; sugar cane is their 
principal product. Two hundred mills, some worked by 
water power, others by steam, and a few by horse power, 
manufacture sugar and brandy, in addition to a central mill 
capable of crushing one thousand tons of sugar cane per 
day. The other industries followed there, are of the most 
improved systems. Seven factories, three of which worked 
by steam, are used for the preparation of "wa^e." More- 
over, the colony has four mills for the preparation of rice, 
36 joiner or carpenter shops, 3 mills for the manufacture 
of arrow root (araruta) and starch, 18 blacksmith and 
locksmith shops, 8 tinsmith's and 12 brick yards. The 
importation and exportation last year amounted to 
2,000:0001000 (about $1,052,631.60 in American money. ) 

Throughout the colony the taste and comfort of the in- 
habitants may be seen. It contains several buildings. Catho- 
lic and Protestant churches, cemetaries, public gardens, 
schools and telegraph offices. 

The Colonizing Society of Hamburg, subsidized by the 
State, has particularly contributed its support for such 
notable improvements. This society took charge of popu- 
lating the fertile lands given as a dowry to their Highnesses 



the Princes of Joinville, who, on their part, neglected no 
means to increase the advantages of this favored region 
gifted by nature with such a mild and healthful climate ' 

The AzAMBUJA Colony.— Founded in 1877, and emanci- 
pated in 1881. It is situated in the municipality of N. 8. 
da Piedade do Tubarao, in proximity to the D. Thereza 
Christma Raih-oad, distant from it about 6 miles, upon the 
banks of the river of Pedras Grandes, confluent of the 
Tubarao and the Urussanga, and which runs into the Ocean. 

Its population is over 2,000, mostly Italians. 

Crossed by excellent roads, the ancient colony of Azam- 
buja can dispose of its products in the city of Tubarao, 
24 miles distant. Its products chiefly consist of flour of 
manioc and in cereals, which are exported in large quanti- 
ties. Wheat, grapes, and sugar cane, the cultivation of which 
being extensively developed, succeed equally well. Four 
stills manufacture brandy. There are yet in the vicinity 
tracts of uncultivated lands, where a large number of im- 
migrants can be advantageously settled. 

The Angelina Colony.— Founded in 1860 and emanci- 
pated m December, 1881. Its population is composed of 
1700 inhabitants, almost all Brazilians. There are among 
them, however, families of other nationalities, engaged in 
the cultivation of cereals, sugar cane and cotton, of which 
they obtain abundant crops, and send to the nearest muni- 
cipality of the county town. 

The Colony of Grao Para.— It belongs to a private com- 
pany and was founded on the 2d of December, 1882 upon 
the patrimonial estates of their Highnesses the Count and 
Countess d'Eu, on the line of the D. Thereza Christina 
Kailroad, m the municipalities of Tubarao and of S. Jose de 

ftsarea is 217,800 acres, divided in three equal zones 
which are subdivided in colonial lots of 110 acres and of 
60 acres. It has excellent means of communication and is 
watered by numerous water courses, some of which are 
navigable for small boats ; the colony is growing and con- 
tains every element of prosperity. 170 families, represent- 
mg over 1,000 persons, are already settled there and are 
engaged m cultivating cereals, potatoes, onions, grapes, etc. 
1 be cultivation ol cotton, sugar cane and wheat, has been 
tried with encouraging success. Germans and Italians 


from Northern Italy are in majority. Every colonial lot 
includes a temporary dwelling and a tract of cleared tim- 
ber land, on an area of 54,450 square yards ; thus, the 
ground is ready for the first plantings. 

All these advantages are offered for 75$000, (thirty-nine 
dollars and fifty cents ); the lot of 110 acres, cost 500$000, 
nearly two hundred and sixty-three dollars and fifteen cents; 
the lots of 60 acres are about the half of that amount. 
The payment must be made in five years, dating from the 
first year. Paid in cash, these prices are reduced by a dis- 
count of 20 per cent. In addition to these colonies, there 
are other scattered centres in various localities, which will 
become prosperous as soon as their inhabitants devote 
themselves with interest and energy to the cultivation of 
the fertile lands placed at their disposal and selected care- 
fully for their settlement. Generally, the Brazilian soil 
richly rewards those who cultivate it. 

Province of Rio Grande do Sul. 

The Silveira Martins Colony. — Founded in 1877, and 
emancipated in 1882. Its population is over 4,500, mostly 
Italians and Germans. It is situated 15 miles from the 
city of Santa Maria da Bocca do Monte, through which all 
its various products are exported. At the same distance is 
the station of Arroio de Sd, on the rail-road of Porto Algre 
to Uruguayana; and a good road connects the colony with 
the same station. This colony is 229 miles from the county 
town of the province, and from the city of Uru- 
guayana, the terminus of the railroad. Its fine climate 
causes the soil to be adapted to every kind of cultivation 
indigenous to temperate zones. Barley, wheat, rye and 
grapes, grow in abundance, as well as tobacco, Indian corn, 
rice, beans, etc. In addition to these staples, the exporta- 
tion of which is important, the inhabitants of the old colony 
of Silveira Martins are engaged in raising hogs, and selling 
lard and pork, properly cured. In the winter the ther- 
mometer often marks 9° Farenheit. The condition of 
this colony, to-day, a parish of the province, is very 
prosperous. There are still found in its vicinity, large 
tracts of uncultivated lands. It has schools for both sexes, 
and a church in course of construction, the expense of 
which is covered by a subscription made among the colo- 


The Cajcias CoLONY.-Thi8 colonial villaee which does 
prolret 'Vtl^'f *'*'*? eight v-ears, is reLrkabL fork 

Kif nrn?tl? "^"'^ ""1 l^' ■'^'""'^*'' '»"«l ^^e fertility of 
Its soil, profitably worked by its industrious inhabitants 

doubtless secure for it a brilliant future. FounH in 1876 

12 000 ^f 1>045,350,000 square yards. The population is over 
12,000 nearly composed of Italians, engaifed not onlv in 
agncultural pursuits, but also in commerce? the devefoo" 
ment of ,8 proved by the existence of more than 50 
commercial houses, some of them having a large capUal 
There are also over 30 grist, 7 saw mills,*? forces 8 Sar 
and cigarette factories, 5 hat factories,'/ SerL for 

presses tor making linseed oil, also soap factories, tailor and 

hXs :[c T« ^^*^^r '^r' T'"' '^"••kets, hotels, coft^e 
nouses, etc. fts agricultural products are Indian corn beans 

Generally the colonists cultivate hemp, which the women 

The inhabitants are in constant communication with the 
county town, where they bring not only their a<rrrcultura1 
products, but also those of their more progressivl indust^l 

The raising of silk worms has been successfully tried the 
the climate being admirably adapted to it, and thehdlabi 

^T, ^^'"% ')^ P™^^''^''' knowledge necessary to derive 
great benehts from that rich industry. There are tW 
pi-mcipal centres of this ancient colony,Cami^ dos Bu^Ls 

stm^•:;^.i;:^„1L 'vSnit^ The'^orei.^^^^^^^ 
ri^Sr' ''-'''' ^"^^ lotlt ?h::stSi::i''o7;fe;^ 

The CoNDE d'Eu and D. Izabel Colony— These imnnr 
Unt colonial villages, like those of Caxias, are in a ver;^?^^: 


perous condition. Their population is over 16,000, peaceful, 
laborious people, almost all, of Italian origin. 

These colonies are situated on the left bank of the Antas 
river, and are crossed in their greatest length by an old road 
leading to the plains of la Vaccaria. 

Originally, the Conde d'Eu and D. Izabel colonies were 
•founded separately, but later, they were united and placed 
under the same administration. Emancipated in March, 1884, 
they form, to-day, part of the civil division of the 
province, under the title of parishes. These two centres occupy 
an area of 402,292 acres, two thirds of which are inhabited. 

The mountainous condition of the soil, the height of which, 
in several places, is about 2,460 feet above the level of the sea, 
enables these colonies to produce every kind of cereals, grapes, 
mulberry trees and hemp. There is also a large quantity of 
timber, among which pine predominates. 

The state of agriculture is very flourishing, the colonists in 

feneral being engaged in it. They cultivate with advantage, 
ndian corn, beans, rye, wheat, grapes, potatoes, flaxseed, mul- 
berry and olive trees. 

Several branches of commerce and industry begin to show 

The grinding of wheat and rye, and the manufacture of wine, 
are the principle products. In the future, other important in- 
dustries will give good results, as soon as they shall have 
received the necessary impulse, for instance, the experiments 
in making silk, and in weaving cotton, are promising. 

These colonies have about 40 commercial houses, 5 forges, 6 
shoe shops, 14 mills — one of which, with steam power-— 4 
breweries, saw mills, joiner or carpenter shops, tanneries, butcher 
shops, 2 hotels, tailors, tin ware stores, etc., as well as a 
great number of grist and saw mills, worked by water 

This important colonial nucleus is connected with the vil- 
lage of S. JoSo de Montenegro, by an excellent road, called 
Buarque de Macedo. This village, situated on the banks of the 
Cahy river, is in regular communication with Porto Algre, 
county town of the province, by means of a line of steamers. 

The Province of Rio Grande do Sul, has other colonial 
centres, where many European immigrants are also estab- 
lished. Among these colonies are those of Nova Petropolis, Nova 



Palmyra and Picada Feliz, which are supported by the Provin- 
cial Treasury. 

In addition to the colonial centres just mentioned, there 
are others scattered in several provinces of the Empire, 
and more or less prosperous, according to their location ; some 
of them being supported by private companies. 

The Ancient Colony of Porto Real.— Situated in the pro- 
vince of Rio de Janeiro, on the banks of the broad Parahyba 
was emancipated shortly after its foundation. On its territory 
a central mill was built and subsidized by a private company, 
to improve and develop the cultivation of sugar cane, which is 
as admirably adapted to the land of that colony, as to those 
stretched along the Parahyba Valley. 

In order to facilitate transportation of the sugar cane 
from the neighboring plantations to the colony, a little steamer 
has been constructed and fitted out by the company. The popula- 
tion is about 950, divided as follows : 

Brazilians 280 

Italians 470 

French 120 

Swiss 81 

Portuguese 40 

The remainder belong to different nationalities. The tract 
which can be cultivated contains 4,717 acres, divided into 188 
lots, of 25 acres each; at present, there are but 1,432 acres 
under cultivation. 

The managers of the central mill sell the vacant lots at a 
low figure. The colony contains 3 sugar mills, 5 slate works 
67 brick houses with tile roofs, and 80 covered with thatch! 
The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the cultivation of sugar 
cane, and are very well satisfied with the results already ob- 

The forwarding of the products of the colony to Rio de 
Janeiro is made by the D. Pedro U Railroad, from which the 
Divisa Station is about 6 miles distant, and 107 miles from 
the main station in the capital of the Empire. 


In the provinces of Santa Catharina, Parana and Rio Grande 
do Sul, the Imperial Government has trusty agents, who, 
advised by telegraph from the General Director, of the arrival 
of the steamers bringing immigrants, are instructed to go on 

board, to receive and shelter them, at the port of landing, 
in houses selected for that purpose, and to forward them to 
their destination. 

Among them, there are some, who have chosen their locality 
and others who have not yet decided where to go. 

In the former case, the agent shall show them the surveyed 
lots which are, as already stated, in the neighborhood of colo- 
nial centres. The location once selected, means of transpor- 
tation are offered them; and having reached the place, 
they are established by the Engineer Commission, who have 
exclusive charge of the survey and measuring of lots. 

A few provinces, however, into which flows a large tide of 
immigrants, have a special management for immigration. The 
province of S. Paulo, for instance, keeps, at its own expense, a 
hotel capable of accomodating 500 immigrants, a building well 
ventilated and meeting with the hygienic requirements needed 
in such cases. It is situated one mile and a half from the 
centre of S. Paulo, county town of the province. The manage- 
ment is similar to that of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The 
immigrants are met at the station by an agent of the province. 

The provincial government of S. Paulo, confers upon im- 
migrants who settle immediately, the advantages contained in 
the following law, passed last year: 

Law No. 29, of the 28th of March, 1884. 

Art. T. From this date, the government will come to the 
assistance of the immigrants of various nationalities, who settle 
in the province of S. Paulo. The traveling compensations shall 
be as follows : 701000 for persons above 12 years, 351000 for 
those from 7 to 12 years old, and 17$000 for those from 3 
to 7 years. 

The pecuniary aid will be given directly to the immigrant. 
The only one entitled to it, shall be married couples with 
or without children, and who shall engage in agricultural pur- 
suits, in private colonies or colonial centres that may be estab- 
lished in the province, either by the general or provincial 
government, by corporations, or private enterprise. 

Art. II. For eight days the government will furnish board 
and lodging in the hotel of the county town, to every immi- 
grant, farmer or not, who shall settle in the province, 
whether he landed at Santos or at Rio de Janeiro ; 
in the latter case, he shall be required to have a passport duly 



authenticated bj the General Inspector of lands and coloniza- 

Art III. The government is authorized to form as many as 
five colonial centres in the vicinity of railroads and navie^able 
rivers, as well as in the neighborhood of the principal agricul- 
tural centres of the province. *^ r & 

§ 1. For that purpose it shall purchase lands of trood 
quality for cultivation ( those already cultivated, preferred ) 
which It shall cause to be surveyed, measured and di- 
vided into lots, upon which temporary houses are to be built 

§ 2. The lots shall be of 26 acres each, and classified ac- 
cording to the quality of the soil, and sold either for cash or on 

§ 3. The price of each lot shall be fixed according to the 
quality of the soil and other conditions of cultivation ; when the 
payment is in cash, the discount will be one-half of the price. 
200«o'oo'^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ temporary house shall not exceed 

§ 5. The government shall cause roads to be opened in the 
colonial centres, in order to bring them inio communication with 
each other, and to connect them with the nearest station. 

§ 6. A school for both sexes shall be built in every colonial 
hamlet. *^ 

Art. IV. The government shall be free to make contracts 
with pnyate parties or companies to introduce immigrants 
who shall settle as land owners, in centres formed by these 
^°p ininnn ^^^ corporatious, to whom shall be granted a subsidy 
ot 40$000 for every immigrant above 12 years, and 20|000 for 
those between 7 and 12 years. 

§ 1. These immigrants shall benefit by the advantages stip- 
ulated m Art. I of the present law, and on the same condi- 

§ 2. The government may make contracts, in preference 
with private parties or companies whose object shall be to sell 
to immigrants proper lands for the cultivation of coffee. 

Art. V. For the execution of Art. Ill of the present law 
the government shall, in preference, treat with companies 
tormed for that purpose, in consideration of the subsidy men- 
tioned m the preceding article. It shall, in the contracts en- 
tered into, observe the provisions of decree No. 8819 of 
the 30th of December, 1882, approving the amendments niade 
in the contract with the Colonization Society of Hamburg 


Art. VI. For the management of immigration in the pro- 
vince of S. Paulo, the following appointments have been made : 
an Inspector of Immigration, at a salary of 3,600$000 per an- 
num ; an Assistant Inspector, receiving 2,000$000 ; a Disburs- 
ing Agent, at 960^000 ; an employee for outside duties, at 
960?000 ; a Hospital Steward to take charge of the Infirmary, 
at 860*000 ; finally, a Doctor, at a salary of 2,400*000. 

§ 1. The management and general inspection of Immigra- 
tion in the province are placed under the General Inspector. 
Art. VII. The President of the province is authorized to 
open a special credit to execute this law. The expenses, in- 
cluding agencies formed, and the aid given to immi- 
grants, shall not exceed 400:000*000 per annum; moreover, 
200:000*000 shall be appropriated for the foundation of colo- 
nial centres. 

Art. VIII. The government shall take the necessary meas- 
ures for the enforcement of the present law. 

During the first six months of 1884, 3174 immigrants ar- 
rived in the province of S. Paulo, and immediately settled. 
Their nationality was as follows : 

Italians 1,658 

Portuguese 1,396 

Spaniards 94 

Germans 98 

Frenchmen 12 

Swiss 1 

Turks 15 

Two-thirds of the Italians came from the Tyrol. • 
Other provinces, such as the Amazon, are also taking the 
necessary measures to receive immigrants, and are organizing 
agencies for that purpose. The province of the Amazon has re- 
cently passed the following law relating to immigration and 
colonization : 

Art. I. From this date, the government shall favor For- 
eign immigration destined to the Province of the Amazon, 
whatever may be its nationality, faith or religion. As soon as 
the immigrant settles permanently in the colonies founded in 
the extensive hydrographic basin of that river, he shall enjoy 
the following advantages: 

§ 1 . Free transportation by third class passage, ( according to 
the number of places at the disposal of the province ) to the 
city of Manaos by subsidized lines of steamers. 


§ 2. Traveling indemnity, conformably to the charges of 
the different shipping ports for this county town. 

§ 3 Free board and lodging for eight days, at the hotel 
established for the immigrants in this county town or in any 
other locality. 

§ 4. Immediate delivery of the tracts of land, surveyed and 
measured, to be sold to the immigrants. 

§ 5. Free passage by water to the point selected by the 

Art. II. The government may offer to companies or private 
parties, who shall introduce colonists in the province, the fol- 
lowing advantages : 

§ 1. Free passage, traveliDg expenses, board, transportation 
to the interior and delivery of the colonial tracts of land, as 
specified m the paragraphs contamed in Art. I. 

§ 2. Guarantee of an annual interest of 6 per cent, for 10 
years, upon a maximum paid up capital of 400:000$000, to 
limited companies or private enterprise, which shall introduce 
Foreign immigrants into the province and shall at once settle 
them in the colonial establishments of said province or in those 
of the same companies. 

§ 3. The capital of the company shall be paid up, conform- 
ably to the provision made for the execution of the present 

§ 4. The colonial lots belonging to the company to which 
the interest was guaranteed, shall always be delivered in full 
ownership, and at the price fixed by the provision of the law, 
according to the quality of the lands. 

Art. in. Baggage, agricultural implements and tools belong- 
ing to immigrants, shall always be transported at the expense 
of the province, on board the subsidized steamers. These 
steamers shall receive additional compensation when the weight 
of the objects already mentioned is in excess to what the pro- 
vince is entitled. 

Art. IV. The government shall purchase good lands upon 
the banks of navigable rivers. These lands shall be surveyed, 
measured and divided into lots, the area and size must never be 
inferior to those fixed by the decree No. 5655, of June 3d, 1874. 

§ 1. The price of every lot shall be the same as that paid 
by the province to the State, the lot, however, may be ceded 
free of charge, to the colonists, who shall be engaged exclu- 
sively in agricultural pursuits or in raising cattle. 


§ 2. In case the colonial lot should be bought by the im- 
migrant, the price shall be lowered one half, if the payment is 
made in cash. 

Art. V. The President of the province is authorized to estab- 
lish four colonial centres on the banks of navigable rivers and 
in the localities most advantageous to agriculture. 

Art. VI. The government may make contracts with private 
corporations or enterprises for the introduction of Foreign 
immigrants who shall come and settle as land owners in the 
colonial centres founded by those corporations, upon the con- 
dition of receiving the following subsidies : 

A.) For every immigrant over 12 years of age, 50|000. 

B.) For every immigrant between 7 and 12 years, 25|000. 

C) For every family of more than four persons, from 
100$000 to 150|000, according to the number of members 
composing it. 

Art. VII. The colonial subsidy may be paid in advance, but 
not exceeding the half of the amount calculated according to 
the number of immigrants which the company intends to intro- 
duce, on the condition of a good guarantee, equal to a mortgage 
on real estate, given to the treasury of the province. 

Art. VIII. The government may cause to be constructed 
for the colonists, small temporary houses in the colonial cen- 
tres which it shall establish, upon conditions to be decided 
by competent authorities. The value of each house shall 
not exceed 100$000. 

Art. IX. In every colonial centre there shall be mixed pri- 
mary schools. As soon as the funds permit it, there shall be 
one for each sex. 

Art. X. The native colonists, who settle upon the same con- 
ditions as Foreigners, shall enjoy the same advantages. 

Art. XI. Carpenters, masons, stone-cutters, potters, street 
laborers, blacksmiths, coopers, and others considered as being 
of primary necessity, shall be entitled to the same advantages 
and protection. 

A RT. XII. Tlie President of the province may engage colo- 
nists abroad, through one or more trusty agents. 

§ 1. The agent shall receive a salary not to exceed 
3:500$000 per annum, exclusive of his traveling expenses. 

§ 2. No funds shall be given to him without the guarantee 
of a mortgage or lien, conformably to the provisions of Art. 


Art. Xin. The President of the province shall us early as 



' nffli I 

possible take the necessary measures for the execution of the 
present law and or^nize every existing branch of the service 
or those to be formed hereafter. 

u'^^I\^J- ^^«°o°,a8 a strong tide of fre. immigration 
shall t^e place throughout the great valley of the Amazon, 
from Panntins to the frontiers of neighboring States, the 
provincial Government shall subsidize one or more steam- 
ship hnes for the special transportation of colonists. 

Akt. XV. In the annual appropriation for the expenses of 
the government for 1884-1885, necessary funds shall be 
granted for the execution of the present law. 
an^u"n d^^' ^^^"^^ pro^Taion contrary to the above b hereby 




Art. 459. Following shall be considered as baggage : 1st. 
Clothing already worn. 2d. Tools and implementsin laily use 
or connected with the profession of the passengers or officere 
and crews of vessels. 3d. Chests, boxes, traveling trunks, bags 
or other receptacles for securing or holding objecte mentioned 
m tnis article. • 

Art. 460. In addition to the objects mentioned above, the 
tol owing shall be specially considered as baggage of the ^lo- 
nists who settle on the territorj of the Empire: Ist. Bedsteads, 
cots and ordinary beds, according to the means and position of 
their owner. 2d Crockery for daily use. 3d. Agricultural imple- 
ments and professional tools. 4th. Furniture of every kind 
and objects of ordinary use, provided that neither the number 
nor quantity shall exceed what is necessary for the use of the 
colonist and his family. 5th. A shot-gun for every adult colo- 

Art 461. After the inspection, upon the arrival of the 
colonists, the collector of customs or his deputy shall distrib- 
ute to every passenger numbered tickets stating where thev 
came from and shall inform them, according to instruction* 
Irom his superior officer, of the day and hour when the exami- 
nation of baggage shall take place. 

Art 462. Immediately after landing, the passengers' batr- 
gage shall be transferred to a special storehouse a^d placed 


according to their tickets, so as to be easily found at the time 
of inspection. 

Art. 463. As soon as the customs inspector, or the re- 
ceiver, shall have obtained the declarations relating to the bag- 
gage of each passenger, he shall countersign and deliver them 
to one or more inspectors who shall proceed with the exami- 
nation and declaration, according to provisions of Art. 

Art. 464. At the appointed time, the examiner shall, in 
presence of the clerks under him, admit every passenger, one 
by one, according to the numerical order of the ticket — show- 
ing the baggage belonging to him ; after opening it, the agent 
shall proceed with its examination, compare it with the declar- 
ations made, and lay aside the articles liable to duty, to be ex- 
amined later ; these articles shall be delivered with a receipt 
to the storekeeper, or to one of his employees, for consignment 
to a particular storehouse. This done, everything not liable to 
duty shall be immediately delivered to the passenger with a 
free permit. 

Art. 466. Passengers' boxes containing merchandise ex- 
clusively, or articles of commerce, shall be entered on the ship's 
manifest; should this be neglected, the passenger guilty of 
such violation, or omission, shall be liable to fine — as set forth 
in Art. 433, § 2d — even though these articles be mentioned 
in the list of baggage. 

Art. 468. Whilst examining and verifying the passengers' 
baggage, the inspectors and other employees shall abstain 
as far as possible from a too minute search, if the social po- 
sition and character of the owner present at the examination 
inspire confidence and prevent any suspicion of contraband, 
or fraud, except in case of advice from an informer, or of such 
a nature as to destroy confidence. 

Art. 469. The examination and verification of baggage can 
be made on board the vessels which bring the colonists. 

Art. 512. The following merchandise and articles shall 
be exempt from importation duties, after the customs inspector 
or receiver shall have taken the necessary fiscal precautions: 

.§ 2. Small hand machines belonging to colonists. 

§ 4. Bedsteads, cots and ordinary beds, crockery for daily 

use, and other furniture and utensils, provided neither the 
number nor the quality exceed the requirements for the domes- 
tic use of the colonists or that of their families. 



§ 5. Implements for agriculture and the liberal arts, or ma- 
chines brought by colonists or artisans who come to settle 
in Brazil, provided they are necessary for their profession or 
trade. Every adult colonist shall be entitled to one shot-gun. 

§ 6. Provisions belonging to colonists and needed for 
their support while unemployed. 

§ 15. Linen and clothing, already worn, as well as tools, 
articles, or utensils necessary for their daily labor or trade. 

§ 28. Gold and silver in bars, powder, ore and leaf, and 
foreign or national coins. 

§ 30. Agricultural machines, and those intended for facto- 
ries, steamers and railroads. 

§ 31. Pieces of machinery imported separately, and upon 
which a report shall be made by experts designated by the 
Chief of the Administration — and in his presence— proving that 
they cannot be applied to any other use than for the replacing of 
worn out pieces in the respective machines, or as re- 
serves in case of need. 

Table showing the number of Immigrants who landed at the 
port of Bio de Janeiro, from July Ut, 1883, to June 30thj 



Germans „.. j 1,^90 

Aastrians Mg 

Americans - ' 10 

Argentine Reitnblie ~ j is 

English ' 158 

Belgians 24 

Spaniards 2343 



Repablic of Uragaay 

Moors ".— 



Russians ~ 

Swisa ~ 

Swedes ■« 

Turks ~ 










1 10,8M 


' 11 


1 t 




i 1 























96,789 i 11,141 1 87,931 


The Empire of Brazil occupies the Eastern part of South 
America, and its boundaries touch every other country of this 
part of the New World, except Chili. It is comprised be- 
tween latitudes 5° 10' North and 33° 46' 10" South, and lon- 

«tudes 8° 21' 24" East and 32° West, from the meridian of 
Bio de Janeiro. 

This vast Empire comprises one-lifteenth part of the land 
surface of the globe, one-fifth of the two Americas, or more 
than three-sevenths of South America. 

Its surface contains 3,250,000 square miles, or sixteen times 
the extent of France or Germany, and thirty times that of Italy. 
In extent of territory Brazil ranks next to the Russian Empire, 
the British Empire and China. 

Its coast line is 5,000 miles in length. 

General Aspect. — The land surface of Brazil is generally 
undulating, but less mountainous in the Southern extremity. 
It contains extensive plains, large valleys and immense rivers. 
In the centre, high and wide table lands, and numerous ranges 
of mountains spreading in every direction. 

Climate. — The climate is hot and moist in the intra-tropi- 
cal belt during the rainy season; elsewhere it is temperate 
and relatively dry. In the valley of the Amazon, under 
the equator, the mean temperature is 78° Fahrenheit, but 
the elevation of the surface, the vegetation, and the East 
winds, modify greatly the effects of the heat. Even close 
to the equator, districts may be found where the climate is 
mild in summer and cold in winter. From Fara to the pro- 
vince of S. Paulo the climate along the coast is hot; 
but lea\ing the coast, the temperature sensibly diminishes 
under the influence of the mountain chains that follow the 
coast line, and of the elevation of the surface. Thus, at Rio 
de Janeiro it is hot during the summer, but at a short 
distance from that city, in the suburbs situated on the sur- 
rounding heights, one may enjoy a delightful climate, tem- 
perate all the year round. 

The Provinces of Minas Qeraes, Parana, Santa Catharina, 
Rio Grande do Sul and S. Paulo, with exception of the 
coast of the latter, present a climate similar to that of South- 
ern Europe. 

Outside of the low and marshy lands and the banks of 
certain water-courees, one does not find in Brazil those 
severe maladies which are wont to decimate great popula 
tions. Such was the opinion of the author of The Climate 
and Maladies of Brazil. He considered that country, which 
he had visitecl and where he had long lived, as one of the 



most healthful of the globe; and he added that Brazil is to 
the New World what Italy was to the Old. 

In Europe, whenever Brazil is mentioned, one thinks of 
the yellow fever. This is due to the exaggerations of cer- 
tain travelers. The yellow fever made its first appearance 
in Rio de Janeiro in 1850, and since that date, it is met 
with from time to time in great cities of the seaboard, but 
never penetrates into the interior. It is true that at Rio, 
as at Santos, Bahia and Pernambuco, there is sometimes, 
during the summer, a certain number of cases of yellow 
fever; but, all other things being equal, this disease slays 
no more in the maritime cities than typhoid fever in Paris. 
It is particularly those newly arrived in the country who are 
attacked by this disease, unless they take certain hygienic 
precautions, indispensable to a change of climate. The 
Government does not permit during the warm season the 
collection of great numbers of immigrants in the maritime 
cities. As fast as they arrive new immigrants are sent into 
the interior and to the colonies to which they are des- 

The climate of Brazil is generally very healthful, and ac- 
cording to the latitude and topography of the localities, 
offers the advantages required by Foreign immigra- 
tion, which, under such favorable conditions and thanks 
also to the wonderful fertility of the soil, meets with every 
element necessary to gain wealth and independence. 

Population. — The population of Brazil, to-day, is only 
12,000,000; a very small number, it is true, for so vast a 
territory, but which is rapidly increasing; in the first place 
from births, and secondly, and still more, from Foreign im- 
migration. This country, with its truly wonderful riches 
and natural fertility, where existence is so easy, might easily 
support 700,000,000 inhabitants, if the population were as 
dense as that of Germany, France, or other countries of 
Europe. The inhabitants belong in part to the Caucasian, 
African and Indian races, and partly to crosses between 
these races, in the following proportions: 

Of pure Caucasian race One-third. 

Of African or Indian One-third. 

Of Metis or mixed One-third. 

The Foreigners number about 500,000, of whom more 

than one-half are Portuguese; the Germans and Italians 
coming next. 

Government — The form of government is Constitu- 
tional, Monarchical, Hereditary and Representative. 

The reigning Dynasty is that of D. Pedro I — of the House 
of Bragan^a-Founder and PerpetualDefender of the Empire, 
and father of the present Emperor, D. Pedro 11, a sovereign 
loved and venerated by every inhabitant of the country, 
as much for his noble mind, eminently patriotic, just and 
liberal, as for the qualities of his kind and generous 

The Political Constitution of Brazil dates from March 
25th, 1824, and has been in part modified by the Addi- 
tional Act of 1834. It recognizes four branches of political 
power: the Legislative, Moderative, Executive and Judi- 

The Legislative Power is vested in the Chamber of 
Deputies and the Senate, with the sanction of the Empe- 

The Senate is composed of fifty-eight members, elected 
for life. Whenever there is a vacancy in the body, the 
electors of the province to which the seat belongs present 
to the Emperor for his selection a list of three names. 

For the election of Deputies, the capital of the Empire 
and the provinces are divided into electoral districts, since 
the reform of January 9th, 1881, which established direct 
sufiTrage. Each district chooses a deputy. The Chamber is 
elected for four years and may be dissolved by the Empe- 

The Emperor isChief of the Executive Power, jwad governs 
through his Ministers of State. 

There are seven ministerial departments: Ministry of Fi- 
nance; of the Empire (Interior, Public Instruction, Wor- 
ship) ; of Justice ; of Foreign Affairs; of War; of the Marine, 
ana of Agriculture, Commerce and Public Works. 

The President of the Council takes one of the ministerial 

The Council of State is composed of twenty-four mem- 
bers; and although it is purely consultative, it is a most im- 
portant aid towards assuring good administration. The 
neir or heiress to the throne is a member of this Council, 
but the other princes of the Imperial family, and the hus- 


band of the heiress presumptive to the throne, only take 
part in it when called upon by the Emperor. 

The Judiciary is independent, and the judges hold for 
life. In the more important provinces there are courts of 
appeal and courts of commerce. The Supreme Tribunal of 
Justice sits at Rio de Janeiro. 

The Moderative Power is delegated exclusively to the 
Emperor as Supreme Chief of the nation, that he may con- 
stantly guard the maintainance of independence, and the 
balance and harmony of the other branches of political 

The twenty provinces of the Empire are governed by 
Presidents appointed by the Imperial Government. Each 
province has a Legislative Assembly chosen by popular vote ; 
and in each city is a municipal chamber. 

Religion — The religion of the State, and of the greater part 
of its population is the Catholic, Apostolic and Roman, though 
every other creed is tolerated. Brazil contains eleven Bishop- 
rics, and one Archbishopric, whose incumbent is the Primate 
of the Brazilian church. No one in Brazil can be prosecuted 
on account of religious faith ; the only thing to be observed is 
respect for public morals and for the religion of the State, 
which on its side respects every other creed, to the extent of 
sentencing to imprisonment and fine, those who would perse- 
cute any one for no other motive, or insult or ridicule any 
creed established in the Empire. 

In the colonial centres, the government has not only author- 
ized the building of chapels, but has also subscribed to them, 
and gone so far as to appropriate money for the salaries of the 
ministers of the creeds. 

Children not of Catholic faith are not compelled to receive 
the same education as those who belong to it. 

Marriages between non-Catholic persons are respected in all 
their legal rights. 

The present laws guarantee the civil status of the children. 

Rights of Brazilians — The constitution of the Empire 
fully guarantees the inviolability, both civil and political, of 
the rights which rest upon the liberty, personal safety and prop- 
erty of every inhabitant of Brazil. 

Products — Brazil is one of the countries most favored by 
nature, who seems to have exhausted all her bounties in its 


behalf The wealth of its mineral, vegetable and animal king- 
doms is as admirable as marvellous. 

If the cutting down of the centenary trees which abound in 
its forests, and the working of other sources of inexhaustible 
wealth, richly reward those who are engaged in it, its fertile 
soil, besides containing precious minerals, is also well adapted 
for every kind of cultivation. 

The majority of the Brazilian people are engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits, the products of which form the principal 
source of the public wealth. 

The topographical situation, the variety of climates, the 
water courses wliich irrigate the laud in every direction, and 
the luxuriant vegetation of the country, adapt the soil of Brazil 
on a more or less extensive scale to the cultivation of every 
plant of the globe, with really surprising results. 

Generally, Indian corn gives 150 for one, beans 83, rice 
1,000, wheat and rye produce in the proportion from 30 to 60 
for one. 

Cotton, which, planted within a given space, produces in the 
United States but 2,250 lbs, within the same space in Brazil 
returns from 3,750 to 20,000 lbs, according to the quality of the 

In certain localities of the Southern provinces, as well as in 
those of the Northern ones, coffee, cotton and tobacco give 
profitable and even astonishing results; in some others, sugar 
cane, cereals and European vegetablesare cultivated with simi- 
lar success. The low lands produce serhigueira, from which 
India rubber is extracted, also cacao, vanilla and every Asiatic 
plant ; the Southern regions produce pears, apples and peaches 
as well as the grape, the chief object of exportation from 
several important centres of the provinces of Parana and Rio 
Grande do Sul. 

In the Noi'thern provinces every effort of the majority of the 
people engaged in agriculture tends toward the cultivation of 
coffee, sugar cane and cotton, the profits derived from them 
being large. 

Two-and-a-half acres will contain 918 coffee plants, which, in 
inferior lands, give 1,687 lbs; in those of second quality 3,385 
ft)3, and in those of fii-st quality, over 5,000 lbs. An active and 
laborious man can easily cultivate 5 acres of coffee plants, 
which would give him an annual income of 405;^000 in the first 
case, 8301400 in the second, and over 1:2001000 in the third. 



calcalatiug the price at the rate of 300 Reis per two-aud-a-half 

The cultivation of sugar cane is equally remunerative. 

Though the soil of Brazil, from the Amazon to the Rio 
Grande do Sul, is suitable for this product, yet it is in the 
Northern provinces and particularly in those of the Rio 
Grande do Norte, Parahyba, Pemambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, 
Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, where it is most extensively devel- 

On newly cleared lands, crops amounting to 250,000 fts of 
sugar cane can be obtained without much labor in fifteen 
months, and, taking advantage of the already ploughed soil, for 
planting Indian corn, beans, etc. 

An active and intelligent planter can tjultivate 5 acres of 
sugar cane, which will bring him 1:400$000, at the rate of 
7$000 per 2,500 fts. 

In estimating the necessary expenses for the care and plant- 
ing of two-and-a-half acres, at 130J00O, there would be a net 
profit of 570$000 for the owner, exclusive of the profits arising 
from Indian corn, beans, etc., planted in the cane fields. 

There is to-day a creat number of central sugar mills well 
organized and worked by steam, for the manufacture of sugar, 
besides others which will soon be built. 

Profitable results are also obtained from the cultivation of 
cotton, which, upon a tract of seven-and-a-half acres can guar- 
antee an annual profit of 840$000. The planter can engage 
in it without much extra labor and in addition, use the open 
spaces for planting cereals. 

The good results derived from the cultivation of the grape in 
Southern provinces, promise future development in the lucra- 
tive industry of the manufacture of wine. 

The Northern provinces derive special profit from another 
product called manioc. Exclusive of its flour, ^ised by the 
whole population, an excellent fecula is extracted from it and 
employed in the manufacture of tapioca, long known and ap- 
preciated in Europe and America, and which also returns 
lar^e profits. 

It sufiSces to remark that upon a space of 262 square 
yards, 40,000 roots of manioc can be planted, which, even in a 
soil of inferior quality, produce 75,000 lbs of tapioca, which, 
at a minimum price of 160 Reis per two-and-a-half ibs, give a 
revenue of 4:800^000. 


The cultivation of manioc, giving such wonderful results, 
does not require the same labor as that of other products ; its 
precious roots not only are used for food and other purposes, 
but its natural leaves, without further preparation are utilized 
as fodder for cattle. 

The cultivation of tobacco also offers brilliant prospects to 
planters. The extensive consumption of that delightful 
weed both at home and abroad — whose leaves adorn the 
Imperial coat of arms- and the production of which is being 
rapidly developed throughout the Brazilian territory, 
is the source of the wealth of extensive regions like the 
Northern part of the province of Minas Geraes, and of the 
interior of the provinces of Bahia, Pernambuco, Alagoas, 
etc. To those who would undertake its cultivation on a 
large scale, it would secure real benefits, and amply reward 
a comparatively small labor, producing about 30,000 plants 
to every two and a half acres. 

The cultivation of cocoa is one of the most useful and lu- 
crative in the inter-tropical zone of Brazil. The expenses 
required to produce it are much less than for coffee, sugar 
cane or even cotton and tobacco planting. Cocoa needs 
neither many laborers nor expensive machinery, and its 
transportation is very easy. It ranks first among natural 
food products, since it contains the elements which develope 
and sustain the human frame ; it can therefore be easily 
substituted for bread and meat. Prepared with water and 
sugar, it becomes chocolate, a beverage universally acknowl- 
edged as being both delightful and nourishing. 

The condition of the atmosphere, containing heat and 
moisture, indispensable adjuncts to the full development of 
the cocoa plant, guarantees the largest profits, since this 
important product is recognized to be as popular as coffee. 
Cocoa is first profitable after 5 years growth, wjhen its 
maximum of production is attained and will continue 40 
years. Each plant can give semi-annually a minimum of 
4J lbs of berries. On "a tract of 750 acres, more than 
31,000 cocoa trees can be planted at intervals of about 9 
feet. Its cultivation therefore, is easily susceptible of giving 
a crop of 155,000 lbs, which, sold at the rate of 400 Reis 
per two-and-a-half lbs, w^ould amount to 24:8001000. 
The expenses are less than half of this sum, including cost 

I I 


of planting, gathering and transportation, which, altogether, 
yequire an average of 12 persons. 

The planter needs no great capital to begin with; a few 
laborers and a modest house are sufficient. 

In Bahia, Maranhao, Para and the Amazon cocoa is pro- 
fitably cultivated, but more largely developed in the first 
and third of the above provinces. It forms, however, a 
very important article of export to foreign countries. 

The crop of mate in the provinces of Parana and 
Mato Grosso, and that of India rubber and other natural pro- 
ducts of the valley of the Amazon are among the many 
resources offered to the industrious immigrant by the vast 
Brazilian Empire, and which require neither capital 
nor materials, labor alone being sufficient. 

Such are, briefly, the different agricultural products, found- 
ing the important and lucrative objects of cultivation on 
the extensive and fertile territory of Brazil, and for their trans- 
portation, there is a net of railroad lines crossing the country 
in every direction. The consideration of constructing new 
lines and extending the present ones has become necessary, 
in order to give a stronger impulse to the commercial develop- 
ment of the country, which, on account of its relations with the 
interior and with foreign countries, controls several lines of 
steamers and sailing vessels, many of them being subsidized by 
the national government. 

Table showing the value of American and English coins com- 
pared with those of Brazil. 



20$000 Reis. 
10$000 " 
5$000 " 


21000 Reis. 
11000 « 

$500 «* 

$200 " 




$200 Reis. 
$100 " 


$040 Reis. 






United States of America. 

$ 5.00 
$ 1.00 

$ 1.00 
$ .50 
$ .25 
$ .10 

$ .05 

$ .01 


equal 38$000 Reis 

" 19$000 
" 9$000 

'' 1$900 



equals 1$900 


equal $095 


equals $019 






One Sovereign ( 20 shillings ) equals 8$889 reis 
Half " (10 " ) « 4$444 '' 



One Shilling 



One Pennv 









Art. VI. The following shall alao be considered as Brazilian 

§ 5. Naturalized Foreigners irrespective of creed. 

The conditions required to obtain naturalization papers shall 
be provided by law. (See laws relating to naturalization). 

Art. 179. § 1. Every citizen is free within the limits 
fixed by law. 

§ 4. All persons can^express their opinions' in speech^or in 
writing, and publish them without being subjected^ to censure 
of the press, but are responsible for the abuse of this right, ac- 
cording to the cases provided for and injjthe form prescribed 
by law. 

§ 5. No one can be'molestedjfor/eligiousfraotives, provided 
the religion of the State and public morals are respected. 

§ 6. All persons can reside in or leave the Empire freely 
and transfer their property, in observing police regulations, 
and without injury to the interests of third parties. 

§ 7. Every citizen has in his domicile, an inviolable asylum, 
where no one can enter by night without his consent, unless in 
case of fire or flood : during the day, the right to enter can be 
enforced only in cases provided for, and in the manner pre- 
scribed by law. 

S 13. The law shall be the same for all, either in protection 
or punishment; it rewards according to the merits of every 

§ 14. Every citizen can be appointed to public, civil, poli- 
tical or military office, with no ditierence whatever, except in 
capacity and good character. 

§ 16. No one shall be exempt from contributing, according 
to his means, to the expenses of the State. 

§ 20. All penalties shall be personally applied to the 

In no case shall there be any confiscation of property ; the 
disgrace of the guilty party, however degrading the crime may 
be, shall not aft'ect the honor of the parents. 

§ 22. The right of holding property is guaranteed to its 
full extent, however, should public necessity, legally stated, 
require the State to seize private property, the owner shall re- 
ceive, in advance, an indemnity equal to the value of the pro- 



perty from which he has been evicted. The law shall decide 
such exceptional cases when they arise, and make regulations 
for establishing the value and amount of indemnity. 

§ 24. No kind of labor, cultivation, industry or commerce 

shall be prohibited, unless injurious to the morals, safety or 
health of citizens. 

§ 26. Inventors shall be entitled to full ownership of their 
discoveries or productions. The law shall assure them an ex- 
clusive and temporary privilege, or shall indemnify them for 
damages caused by the too popular use of their discoveries or 

§ 27. The mail is inviolable ; the Post Office Department 
is held rigidly responsible for every infraction of this article. 

§ 29. Public officials are made strictly accountable for 
abuses and omissions committed in the discharge of their 
duties, as well as for those by their subordinates. 

§ 30. Every citizen can submit in writing, to the Execu- 
tive and Legislative Powers, claims, complaints or petitions ; 
and even report every infraction of the constitution, and re- 
quire from the proper authority, the enforcement of the respon- 
sibility of delinquents. 

§ 31. The constitution also guarantees public charity. 

§ 32. Primary instruction is free to every citizen. 

J 33. Colleges and Universities shall be founded, where 
the elements of Science, Art and Literature shall be taught. 

Naturalized citizens can be appointed to all public offices, 
except those of the Ministry of State and Regent of the Empire. 

Art. 95. Every voter can be elected a member of the 
House of Representatives. 

Art. 27, of the Additional Act — The election of the 
Regent of the Empire shall be made by the members of the 
Legislative Body, assembled in their electoral colleges, and 
who shall vote in secret session for two Brazilian citizens, one 
of whom shall not be a native of the province to which the 
colleges belong ; neither of them can be a naturalized citi- 


DECREE NO. 1950, OF THE 12tH OF JULY, 1871. 

Art. I. The government is authorized to grant letters of 
naturalization to every Foreigner over 21 years of age, who, 
after having resided in Brazil or beyond its territory while in 





its service, for more than two years, and shall apply for them, 
declaring his intentions of remaining in the country or in its 
service, after his naturalization. 

Art. II. The government may waive the length of resi- 
dence in behalf of the applicant, on the following conditions: 

1. Being married to a Brazilian woman. 

2. Owning real estate in Brazil, or interested as partner, or 
otherwise, in industrial establishments. 

3. Having invented or introduced any kind of industry. 

4. Being distinguished by his talent or works, or by his pro- 
tessional fitness in branches of industry. 

6. Being the son of a naturalized Foreigner, born outside of 
the Empire, prior to the father's naturalization. 

Art. III. In order to be benefited by the clauses of the 
present law, it shall be sufficient to produce certificates copied 
from official records or affidavits furnished by any authority 
or even by respectable parties. 

Art. V. The above mentioned letters shall take effect when 
those to whom they have been granted — or their representa- 
tives duly provided with special power of attorney — take 
the oath of allegiance and fidelity to the constitution and to the 
laws of the country, and shall, at the same time, swear, or 
promise to acknowledge, thereafter, Brazil as their own 

Art. VI. This oath may be taken before the Government, 
or before the President of the province, wherein the applicant 
has fixed his residence. 

On that occasion the party shall state his religious belief, his 
nationality, whether he is single or married, and in the latter 
case if it is with a Brazilian woman or with a Foreigner, how 
many children, if any, their names, sex, faith, condition and na- 
tionality. According to these declarations, a record shall be 
kept in the Department of State, of every naturalized For- 

Art. VII. The naturalization of colonists shall continue to 
be regulated according to Decree No. 808, A., of June 23, 

Art. VIII. Every provision contrary to the above is 
hereby repealed. 

DECREE NO. 808 A. OF JUNE 23, 1855. 

Art. I. Foreigners established as colonists in various parts 
of the Empire and not yet recognized as Brazilians, shall 


be considered as such, after signing at the City Hall of their 
residence, or before a Justice of the peace, their declarations to 
become natunilized and to remain in the Empire. They shall 
also give the name of their birthplace, their religion, their con- 
dition, and the number of their children. 

Art. II. The officer who receives the aforesaid declara- 
tions, shall give, as soon as they are signed, a certified copy to 
the colonist; and the presidents of pr(»vinces, upon its presen- 
tation, shall deliver, without fee, the naturalization papei^s, 
after receiving the oath of allegiance to the constitution and to 
laws of the Empire. 

Art. III. In regard to colonists who may arrive in Brazil, 
after the date of this decision, the provisions of Art. 17, of law 
No, 601— September Isth, 1850— and of Art. Ill, of decree 
No. 712— September 16th, 1853— shall be observed. The 
government, however, is authorized to grant lettei-s of natural- 
ization, prior to the delay caused by this law, to every colonist 
deemed worthy of this favor. 

Art. IV. Fathers, guardians or trustees, can make the de- 
claration mentioned in Art. I, in name of minor colonists 
born abroad, and obtain their naturalization ; minors, how- 
ever, shall have the right to resume their first nationality on 
attaining their majority. 

Art. "V. The provisions of this law, applicable only to col- 
onists, do not annul the other clauses of the law of October 23d, 

Art. VI. Every provision contrary to the above is hereby 


LAW^ NO. 3140 OF OCTOBER 30, 1882. 

Letters of naturalization are from this date free from taxa- 
tion ; the presidents of provinces are also authorized to grant 



It should be remembered that the climate of Brazil permits 
out door labor all the year round. Its people are not therefore 
compelled to provide, during the summer season, for subsistence 
through the inclement months of winter, as they must do in 
many portions of Europe and the United States. They may 
engage either in agriculture, manufacture, mercantile pursuits 
or mining. 

In Brazil are found diamonds, emeralds, sapphires, rubies, 
topazes, beryls, garnets and cornalines, black, blue and green, 
known by the name of Brazilian emeralds. There are ex- 
ported considerable blocks of rock crystal of great purity, as 
well as amethysts, opals, agates, jasper and veined crys- 
tal of yellow quartz. Gold abounds in Bnizil, and several 
mines are worked at the present time ; the richest being in the 
Provinces of Parana and Minus Geraes. 

The Tibagy :Mining and Dredging Company has purchased 
the necessary machinery, and is now making preparations for 
working, on a large scale, the rich Diamond and Gold deposits 
in and near the river Tibagy in the Province of Parana. 

The South Brazil Gold & Copper Mining Company com- 
menced work on a large scale some years since in the munici- 
pal district of Ca<;apava in the Province of Rio Grande do Sul. 
Mines are being successfully worked by many other companies 
in various parts of the Empire, and yet there are numerous 
other undeveloped mines awaiting to reward whoever may 
engage in this profitable industry. 

Brazil alsoyieldssilver, copper, iron, antimony, mercury, tin, 
zinc, bismuth and arsenic. Also granites of ' various colors, 
and marbles, the most remarkable of which are the green and 
black marbles of Rio Grande do Sul. Tlie vast coast region 
between latitudes 15° and 30° South is composed almost entirely 
of primitive rocks, such as granites, gneiss, diorites, green and 
black, light and dark quartzites, porphyries and syenites. In 
the interior are found ferruginous rocks, sandstones, pure or 
ferruginous, and limestones suitable for sculpture, and 8UsceI^- 
tible of being polished like marble. The lime that is used in 
building along the coast is made almost exclusively of oyster 
shells. Fibrous plaster is found in the Province of Miuas and 
in several of the Northern ones. Several varieties of clay, 


white or pink, are used in the manufacture of crockery, tiles, 
crucibles and common ware. Kaolin, which abounds in Bra- 
zil, is almost always mixed with quartz. 

Coal is found in several provinces, especially in those of Rio 
Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina and Parana, equal m every 
respect to the products of the celebrated coal mines in the Al- 
leghany Mou ntain region in the United States. The coal beds 
of Candiota and Arroio dos Ratos in the Province of Rio 
Grande do Sul are being worked, and railroads have been con- 
structed to facilitate transportation. Deposits of lignite, 
peat, bituminous schists, graphite and sulphur are abun- 

Among the salts most abundant may be mentioned saltpetre, 
alum, rock salt, chloride of sodium or common salt, and the 
sulphates of magnesium and sodium. Important beds of phos- 
phate of lime have been recently discovered on three island s of 
the Fernando de Noronha group, and their productive capacity* 
has been estimated at 1,300,000 metric tons. 

Mineral springs are numerous; among them iron, alka- 
line, saline, sulphurous; and besides these there are hot 

Rock crystal, known to Commerce as "Brazilian pebble," 
and used by opticians in all parts of the world in the manufac- 
ture of eyeglasses and optical instruments, is exported from the 
Provinces of Parana, Goyaz and Minas Geraes to London, 
Paris, Vienna and New York, where it is made into lenses and 
re-exported to all parts of the world. Lenses made from these 
crj'stals are far superior in hardness and clearness to any others, 
and sell for about three times the price of the best glass ones. 
Moreover, the rock crystal or " pebble" is a strong conductor 
of heat, and lenses made of it are therefore recommended by 
oculists on account of its power of drawing heat from the eyes 
and giving them strength. Besides these valuable '* pebbles," 
the three Provinces above named also export diamonds and 
other precious stones — among them may be mentioned the fine 
large Brazilian amethyst which obtains a high price. 

Mercury has been discovered on the CapSo d'Anta, an estate 
in the Province of i^arana, in quantities that will permit com- 
petition with mines of Europe, Peru and CaHfornia. 

In Brazil there are iron mines, which, owing to the complete 
absence of pyrites, are incontcstably superior to the most famous 
mines of Sweden. The magnetic iron ore of Brazil contains 
72.5% of iron; the oligistic, the martito, and the best mica^ 



ceous 70% ; falling in the inferior qualities to 25 and 
20%. From its abundance and good quality, iron is by 
itself one of the most important elements of the wealth of the 
Empire. In general, the deposits may be easily and economi- 
cally worked, being, for most part, situated near great forests, 
which, being cut down constantly, reappear within from 6 to 
10 years, and which therefore fomi immense inexhaustible de- 
posits of excellent fuel, near abundant streams and falls which 
constitute great water power for working machinery. 

In the Provinces of Parana and Rio Grande do Sul there are 
enormous quantities of iron ore, the greater portion of which is 
of tlfie kind required in the maimfacture of the best grades of 
crucible, open hearth and other kinds of steel. Large quantities 
of iron consumed in the Province of Minas Geraes are extracted 
from its mines and manufactured on the spot. It may there- 
fore be considered certain that this great industry, which is in 
itself alone the chief source of the wealth of some of the richest 
nations on the globe, will, in the near future, take its proper 
place among the productive industries of Brazil. 

The attention of capitalists who are interested in the develop- 
ment of coal and iron mines is especially called to those of 
Brazil and to the liberal facilities offered by the Imperial Gov- 
ernment for working them. 


Brazil has received the name of the " Land of Coffee," and 
it certainly deserves the appelation, since it furnishes fifty-five 
per cent, of the world*8 annual product, which is thus distri- 
buted : 

Annual coffee product of Brazil 360,000,000 kilogrammes. 

Annual coffee products of all other 

countries 300,000,000 kilogrammes. 

Total world's production annually . . 660,000,000 kilogrammes. 

In the year 1800 Brazil exported only 13 bags of coffee. At 
the present time the annual product of the Empire is about 
360,000,000 kilogrammes, or 6,000,000 bags of 60 kilogrammes 
each. The Brazlian coffee exported to the United States 
amounted in 1884 to 2,401,105 bags of 132 pounds each; and 
to all other countries in the world only 1,496,007 bags. 

Of last year's export to the United States 1,576,273 bags 
went to the City of I\ew York; 456,476 to Baltimore; 220,- 
553 to New Orleans ; 77,378 to Newport News and Hampton 
Roads; 42,547 to Galveston; 17,774 to Savannah; 8,379 to 
Mobile; 6,183 to Richmond, while 4,547 were distributed 
among other ports. 

At present Brazil need not fear the competition of any coun- 
try whatever. The superiority of its soil, where the average 
production for each plant is about six pounds, three times as 
much as in Asia and the Dutch possessions, and almost twenty- 
four times the production per plant in Mexico, — the constant 
improvements in the culture of coffee in Brazil, which will, in 
a short time, be perfected in the system of central factories for 
its treatment and seasoning ; the united efforts of the Imperial 
Government, and the patriotic Association Centro da Lavoura 
e Commercio, and of the producers in general, to establish the 
credit of this product in foreign countries through repeated ex- 
positions ; the lowering of the exp^irt tax and of freight tariffs 
on the Brazilian railroads — all these concur to establish the 
position of Brazil as the foremost coffee producer of the world. 

Wherever Brazilian coffee has entered into international 
competition, it hiis secured the highest premiums. At the Uni- 
versal Exposition in Paris in 1867 and 1879, at Vienna in 1873, 



at Philadelphia in 1876, and at Buenos Ayres in 1882, it received 
many premiums. The International jury at Paris in 1867 con- 
ferred a gold medal on the cottee of Brazil, a distinction re- 
ceived by no other coffee. 

Of the expositions held by tlie Centro da Lavoura e Com- 
mercio in foreign countries since 1882, those in New York 
and London received flattering notices from the press of those 
cities. That at New York, held under the auspices of the New 
York Coffee Exchange, saw its samples, graded by the Ex- 
change, classed, in some cases, above or equal to the best cof- 
fees of the world. At the Berlin exposition, in 1882, held 
under the patronage of the Central Society of Commercial 
Geography of Berlin, the Centro da Lavoura e C/onmiercio and 
a planter of the Province of S. Paulo obtained the highest 
prize, the grand diploma of honor ; seven grand diplomas, 
nine diplomas and live honorable mentions were given to ex- 
hibitors of Brazilian coffees. At the Exposition of coffee at 
Paris, the grand gold medal of the Concours Agricole Annuel 
was given on the 16th of February, 1883, to the Centro da 
Lavoura e Commercio. In the same year, at the International 
Exposition at Amsterdam, the great depot of Dutch coffees, so 
highly esteemed in Europe, the Centro da Lavoura e Commer- 
cio obtained a grand diploma of honor for its exposition of 
coffees, a premium given to the coftee of no other country. 
Besides this grand diploma, the jury granted six gold, eleven 
silver, and fifteen bronze medals, and fifteen honorable men- 
tions to Brazilian planters, and the Dutch Government sent a 
commissioner, Mr. van Delden, to Brazil to study the coffee 

The Empire of Brazil does not profess a policy of protection ; 
nevertheless, in consideration of the question of freights on cof- 
fee to the United States, it saw that the establishment of a 
line of steamers under the American flag, in competition with 
English steamers, would produce a reduction in freight 
rates, and therefore determined to grant a subsidy to a new 
line. The result justified the expectations of the Government, 
and the rate of freights, which eight years ago was 75 cts. to $1.00 
per bag of coffee, by the English steamers, has fallen to an 
average of 40 cts., and cargoes have been brought as low as 
10 and 15 cts.; it has been said of such cargoes that 
it actually cos^ less to bring them from Rio de Janeiro to New 
York, than to transport them after their arrival, from Brook- 


Ijn to the railroads in New York or Jersey City. The truth is 
that the expense of the subsidy has been a profitable one to 
Brazil, since it brought about so marked a difference in the 
freight rates, a difference which more than balances the tax 
laid to pay the subsidy. 


The following tables only show the Brazilian railroads constructed pre- 
vious to the Jiscal year terminating June 30, 1883. During the past two- 
and-a-halj' years many additions have been made to the old roads, while 
a number of new ones have been built and put under contract. 




Para '*^™ Belem to Braganva 



do Norte 


Madeira an J Mamore. 

From Natal to Nova.Craz. 
Branch of CearA Miri'm 


CaraoBsim to 8obral. 


b» Conde d'Bu. 

I buco 

Recife to 8 Francisco 

do to Cachangit 

do to Limoeiro 

Extension of the R R from 

cife to 8 Francisco 

Recife to Caruan'i 

do to Olinda 


Paolo Affouso 

Central of Alagf^as- 


4"«»» m^ •a«|'«7 1 

n s 


s 2- 


PC hS 






r* 5a 








88 6,668 .-UOOtOUO 






Sergipe Aracaju to SimAo Diaa. 

Bahiato 8 Pranciaco 

Extension o' the R R from Ba- 
hiato 8 Francisco 

Central da Bahia 

Santo Amaro 


Italiano to Cachoeira das Panellas 
Branch of Timb6 









5,488 :0688M4 
1,417 :B00#UOO 

6,000 :000t000 

7,537 :5008000 



16,008 :(IOOtOOO 


185 13.000 :000t000 
I 2,400 :000$000 

S3 1.250:00081000 
' i 000:000^000 

55 g,65O:O00tO0O 



;a.PCS ^ 58 

OH- Z 







Philadelphia e Caravel la.s. 

i ___^l _ 

9o! 80l 

150 12,000 :UOO$(K)0 





Campos to 8 8ef>astiao 

Rio Panlo <o Santa Cruz 

Campos to Caran^ola de Araruama 

Rezende «o Ar«^as 

Comraercio and Rio das Florea 

S Fidt'llH 

Rio do Ouro 

Vulta (irande to 8auto Autouio uo 



Piedade to Theresopoiis 

Rio Bonito lo Juturnahyba 


8anto Antonio de Padua. 

I'Macah*' e Campos 

Cdrte to Mage 

Santa Isabel do Rjo Preto 

UniAo V'alenciana 

Principe do Or.ioPau 

Forto Novo doCunha to Paque- 

quer ~. 

Branch of Bananalense 



12. 10,873:1331740 

' 25 600:000*000 

108' 80 38 6,000:000*000 

26 8<KJ:U00*O00 

18 2,200:000*000 

15j 2; 

I 9' 38 

361 1 12i l,164:83Hi799 

26 15 18 780:000*0(J<» 
i 1,400:0(KH>000 

I 3 400:000*000 

50 8 

60 I 8,000:000*OWJ 

I 36l 2,000:000*000 

27i 20' 3,800:000*000 

40^ 1,735:250*000 

16 45! 3,100:000*000 



Rio de 
8 Paulo, 
and I**' 

Minas , 

Pedro Segundo. 




It nana 

8antos to Jundiahy 


8 Paolo to Tiet«> (8orocabr»na) , 

S Paolo and Rio de Janeiro 

Mogyan I 

8 Jo to do Rio Claro to 8 Carlos do 

8 Paulo Pinchal 

{Branch of Bananalense 


Extension of Mogyana 




50i 5.402:^95*906 

23, 555: 850*000 


15 90; 8,000:000*000 

10,665 :000*00«» 

- j 8.350:000*000 

36 85' 1,800:000*000 

15 [ 300:000*000 

36 1 2,320 :(KO*000 

170 7,000:000$000 

I i 













Paranagua to Corytlba. 



en's- 55 §~ 

I - 



Cordeiro o Rio Pomba 

Minas and Rio 

Uni i(» Mineira 

Juiz dp F<'ra ao Piau 

8 dEl Rt'i to Oliveira , 

Pitanpuy to Patos » , 

Lavras to Santa Rita de Jacutinga 

Bicas ao Ri«» Pardo 

Branch of Rio Kovo 





Miuas e 









and Rio 


do Sul 

Ponte Nova to Natividnde. 
Vittoriato Natividade 

D. Thereza Christina. 

D. Pedro I. 















Ina and 











8. Francisco ao Rio Negro. 

Porto Allegre to Novo Hamburgo 

Porto Alopre to Cac guy 

PeU>tas to Porto Alegn- 

Santa Maria o; Uruguay 

8 Leopoldo to Concei«;5io t»f Arrolo 

Rio Grande toBaiS) 

<)uaraliim to Itnqui , 

Cacoiiuy to Uruguyana 

Bag.- to Caceqny 

8 Jeronymo 

8 Joao of Monte uegro~ 













9,000 .UjO^OOO 

6,451 :008f 100 

3,638 :635«148 

13,521 .-453*322 

125 2,306:8721135 


Though the Imperial Government is actively engaged in 
promoting railway' enterprises, and extending its lines, Brazil 
is less dependent upon them for interior commercial facilities 
than any other country on the globe. Its great rivers and 
their tributaries oft'er abundant steamboat transportation to all 
parts of the Empire and adjoining countries ; and moreover, 
are open to commerce all the year — being never obstructed 
by ice, etc. 

Brazil has four great rivers — the Amazon, Toc&ntins, Parana 
and S. Francisco, besides numerous smaller ones that are also 
navigable for large steamboats. 

The Amazon, rising in Peru, offers a channel of steam com- 
munication across the widest part of the continent from the 
Atlantic Ocean to within a few hundred miles of the Pacific ; 
and with the Tocantins, serves as the means of communication 
between the Provinces of Para, Amazonas and Goyaz, part of 
the Provinces of Maranhao and Matto Grosso, and the Repub- 
lics of Venzuela,, Columbia, Equador, Peru and Bolivia. The 
Amazon and its tributaries offer, on Brazilian territory alone, 
a length of 27,000 miles navigable for large river steamboats ; 
and about 1,000 miles of the lower portion navigable for the 
largest ocean steamships in the world — having a depth 
of sixty feet in the channel. All the steamship lines between 
Brazil and the United States touch at Para, and one of them 
runs up the Amazon to the flourishing city of Manaos, the 
capital of the Province of Amazonas in Central Brazil, about 
100 miles above the confluence of the Maderia and Amazon 

The Parana, formed by tlie confluence of the Rio Grande 
and the Paranahyba, crosses the Brazilian Provinces of S. 
Paulo, Matto Grosso and Parana, and the Argentine Pro- 
vinces of Misiones, Corrientes, Entre-Rios and Santa F^. 

Of its tributaries, the Paraguay is the most considerable, 
and itself has branches also navigable. The communication 
between Matto Grosso and the capital of the Empire is made 
bv steamboats, along the Paraguay, the Parana and the La 


The 8. Francisco crosses the Province of Minas Geraes, 
m which it rises, and those of Bahia, Pernambuco, Alagoaa 
and Sergipe. Navigation is interrupted by the Falls of Paulo 
Alibnso, but a railroad has been built to connect the two 
navigable portions of the river, towards which the great 
railroad lines of Kio de Janeiro, Bahia and Pernambuco are 

Besides the rivers above mentioned, belonging to four great 
basins, several others of considerable importance empty 
into the Atlantic ; among which may be mentioned the Gurupy, 
Tury Assu, Itapicuru, Parnahyba, Jaguaribe, Piranhas, Para- 
hyba, Vasa-Barris, Paraguassu, Rio de Contas, Jequitinhonha, 
Mucury, Rio Doce and Parahyba do Sul. The basin of the 
lakes dos Patos and Mirim, in the Province of Rio Grande do 
Sul, is traversed bv several great rivers which empty into these 
lakes, such as the Jacuhy, the Camaquan and the JaguarSo. 

Another great river, the Uniguay, which rises in the 
Province of Santa Catharina, serves as the boundary between 
the Province of Rio Grande do Sul and the Argentine Repub- 
lic, and forms, further on, with the Parana, the vast estuary of 
the La Plata. 

A large number of enterprising Steam Navigation Compa- 
nies and firms are engaged in the navigation of all the princi- 
pal rivers of the Empire. Among them may be named the 
" Companhia Fluvial Paraense," the " Companhia Fluvial do 
Alto Amazonas," the " Amazon Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, Limited ''; the "Companhia Navega^So a Vapor Ma- 
naos " and the " Companhia Navega^fto Para e Amazonas." 
Thirty-seven of the steel and iron steamers used by these com- 
/ panics were built in the United States expressly for Brazilian 
i river and coastwise service. 

Along the Atlantic coast of Brazil, which has an extent of 
6,000 miles, communication is made by numerous Brazilian and 
foreign steamship lines. All the provinces, except those of 
Minas Geraes, Goyaz, Amazonas and Matto Grosso, touch the 
Atlantic and have harbors. The four interior provinces have 
communication with the sea through the great waterways al- 
ready named ; and that of Minas Geraes is already in connec- 
tion with the coast by railroads. 

The principal ports are those Belem do Para, S. Luiz do 
Maranhao, Parnahyba, Recife de Pernambuco, Maceio, Bahia, 
Victoria, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Paranaguk, .Santa Catharina 



and Rio Grande do Sul. The harbor or port of Rio de Janeiro 
has a circuit of more than 123 miles. 

Commodore Thomas 0. Selfridge, U. 8. N., made a survey 
of the Amazon and Madeira rivers, on board of the United 
States Steamship Enterprise^ in 1878 ; and in his Official Re- 
port to the Secretary ot the Navy, which was transmitted to 
Congress by the President with his annual message, in De- 
cember, 1879, made the following important statements re- 
garding certain features of the Brazilian Empire, particularly 
its system of transportation by water: 

" I shall never forget the feelings that the mighty Ama- 
zon inspired as in the morning we rounded the point 
where we had anchored, and came out upon the open river 
rolling down in all its resistlefls majesty, and stretching out 
to the Westward until it was lost in the dim outline of the 
distant horizon. It seemed hardly possible that this was a 
river almost dividing a continent. ♦ * ♦ 

**Our ship was kept close to the Southern bank, and we 
thus had the full flow of the river to our right as we as- 
cended. In the distance to the North the blue Almerine 
hills made a pleasant back-ground to this picture of nature's 
grandeur. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

" This magnificent river is at least twice the size, in vol- 
ume, of any other in the world, not excepting the Mississippi. 
It is not only in its width, but in its astonishing depth and 
consequent volume that the Amazon exceeds all other riv- 
ers. Not less than 60 feet will be found in the channel the 
whole distance of the 874 miles from Para to the mouth 
of the Rio Negro. • * * 

"The Empire of Brazil includes about one-half of the whole 
continent of South America. The great water shed of the 
Andes passes through its territories, giving it the most perfect 
water system of any country in the world. Thus it would 
seem that nature has prepared a way for the opening up of 
this vast country by the most inexpensive of all systems of 
transportation. * • • 

" Steam was first introduced on the Amazon in 1853, an J 
at once a new life seemed to be given to the country. * ♦ * 

" No nation is more directly interested in the prosperity 
of Brazil than the United States. Our geographical situa- 
tion brings us nearer than Europe, and her coffee, sugar, 
rubber, and products of her forest we need in exchange for 
the products of manufacture we can furnish. 

* * * 



«* The Rio Negro from its junction with the Amazon, opens 
rapidly into a river of such proportions as might be considered 
a bay 4 miles wide and 12 long. On this bay is situated the city 
of Manaos, by far the largest on the upper Amazon and the 
largest in Central Brazil. It is very picturesquely placed, on 
a series of low hills skirting the bay. The houses are neatly 
constructed, with the sides either painted or covered with 
painted tiles. It is regularly laid out, and the principal streets 
are well paved and lighted. It is the capital of the Province of 
Amazonas, and is the port through which passes all the trade 
of the rivers Purus, Negro, Solimoens and their tributaries. 
It is also the principal terminus for the steamers of the Ama- 
zon Steam Navigation Company, and from whence they depart 
for all the numerous tributaries of the Amazon. Manaos is 
also the rendezvous for a small naval flotilla, and should be- 
come a city of importance. The Cathedral, occupying a com- 
manding situation in the centre of the town, is a fine edifice, 
said to have been fifteen years building, and to have cost half a 
million dollars ; the altar and frieze of the choir are very 
handsome structures of cut stone. • • • 

«^The river off Manaos is very deep; 500 yds. from the shore is 
found 45 fathoms, and the Enterprise anchored abreast the 
Cathedral, 300 yards from the shore, in 23 fathoms. * * * 

*'The Maderia River, the greatest tributary of the Amazon, 
rises in the Andes, and flowing generally Northeast about 2,000 
miles, empties into the Amazon. In the character of its banks 
and its numerous islands the lower Maderia resembles the Mis- 
sissippi river. It is dift'erent however in having a large number 
of small lakes on both banks with outlets to the river itself, 
throughout its course. These lakes embrace a vast net work 
of internal water communication, whfch enables the rubber 
gatherers to reach with canoes or other small boats a large area 
of country that would otherwise be almost invaluable, as they 
would be compelled to travel long distances by land to reach 
the numerous rubber trees which are the great source of wealth 
to its inhabitants. ♦ • • 

"Though rubber is by far the most important article cf export 
of the Madeira, there are large quantities of oil of Copaiba, 
Castanha nuts, quarana and dried fish produced. The lands 
bordering on the river are fertile and produce cacao, mandioca, 
maize, tobacco, etc. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

"The experience of the Enterprise and what we have 


gathered from other sources, lead one to believe that the valleys 
of the Amazon and Maderia may be considered healthful. 
Persons navigating these rivers would be no more subject to 
disease than if engaged in similar occupations on the Missis- 
sippi and other Western rivers in the United States. The En- 
terprise has been three months on constant service on the 
Amazon and Maderia rivers, and we have not had more 
than a half dozen cases of intermittent fever, and they were 
all of mild type. ♦ ♦ • 

**The rainfall is at no time excessive. It is not a soaking and 
drenching rain for days at a time, but rain interspersed with 
much pleasant weather. • * ♦ 

** The term Tapuyo is applied to the domesticated Indians 
of the Amazon, and as a class they are industrious and intel- 
ligent. They form the crews of all the steamboats on the 
Amazon, in preference to whites or blacks. The girls make 
excellent servants, skilled with the needle and are sought 
after by Brazilians of the better classes, who bring them up 
from childhood in their families. In appearance they are far 
superior to our North American Indians, readily adopting 
the civilized habits of the whites, cleanly in their persons, 
faithful in their attachments, and possessing, among the fe- 
males, much real beautv. ♦ • * 

*' The survey of the Madeira being completed so far as it 
could be performed by the Enterprise, I awaited the first 
river steamboat to ascend the river and join the steam 
launch in the survey of the remaining portion to the Falls 
of San Antonio ; and, on the 4th of July went on board of 
the side-wheel steamboat Canuman, Alberto Moraes, captain, 
bound for San Antonio. The Canuman is an American 
l>uilt iron side-wheel boat, drawing about 7 feet loaded, and 
constructed after the pattern of our Western river boats, 
with separate engines. This American type, not found in 
any steamers of English build, is in great favor among the 
steamboat owners and pilots of the Amazon and its tributa- 
ries, and I doubt if any more steamers for river navigation 
are ordered in England, unless there is great difference in 
price in their favor. Life on board the river steamers of 
this country is decidedly cosmopolitan. No state-rooms or 
berths are needed, for no person in this countrj^ travels 
without his hammock, known as rede, which, upon coming 




on board, he hangs in such part of the upper deck as best 
suits him. It is a cleanly arrangement, giving much more 
room, and better suited to the cUniate. * * * 

** I lind among the merchants of the Amazon and Ma- 
deira a most excellent feeling towards the American pro- 
ducts of manufacture ; the demand for tliem is constantly 
increasing. The trade of the country is mostly in the hands 
of old Portuguese firms. What America wants is a more 
extended demand for her productions, and this can, in most 
cases, be best realized through the agency of the old estab- 
lished native firms. * * ♦ 

^*It is vitally necessary, however, if the United States 
will take its share of the foreign business of Brazil, to create 
avenues of trade by which it will fiow to our shores. There 
are, first of all, well established lines of steamships— fos- 
tered by the government in order to compete with the old 
estabhshed European lines, until the trade directed by them 
to our country will enable them to take care of them- 
selves. * * * ^ ^ 

'' There should also be direct telegraphic communication 
between the two countries. To the energy of our own coun- 
trymen we are indebted for the first successful Atlantic 
cable. Why cannot one be laid direct to Brazil ? 

*^ A bank, through w^hich exchanges could be favorably 
made, is also very necessary for the easy fiow of commerce. 
But especially it niust be remembered that freciuent, regu- 
lar and rapid steam communication is absolutely necessary, 
first of all, no matter how excellent our products of manu- 
facture may be." 


The following includes all the direct steamship lines between 
the United State? and Brazil — three in number — and running 
from the ports of New York, Baltimore and Newport News, 
to Para, Maranhao, Ceara, Manaos, Pernambuco and Rio de 
Janeiro ; and two of the regular lines of sailing vessels. Steam 
and sail vessels are despatched from all the other ports of the 
United States to Brazil, as the trade may require. 

The United States k Brazil Mail S. S. Co. 

The steamships of this line were built especially for the Brazil 
trade and run monthly — direct, going and returning — between 
the ports of Neio York and Newport News and Rio de Ja- 
neiro; touching at St. Thomas and Barbados, West Indies, 
and at the Brazilian ports of Para, Maranhao, Pernambuco 
and Bahia. Capt. T. M. Lachlan, Mills' Building, 23 Broad 
St., New York, is the Manager of the Company, which receives 
a subsidy from the Brazilian Government, and is bound by the 
terms of its contract, to carry bona fide Immigrants, having 
passports from the Brazilian Consul, at reduced rates. Its 
agents are: Paul F. Gerhard & Co., 84 Broad St., New York; 
G. W. Smith & Co., St. Thomas; Da Costa& Co., Barbados ; 
Sears & Co., i*ara ; Jose Faria Da Silva Jr. & Co., Ma- 
ranhao; Henry Foster & Co., Pernambuco; Vaughn, McNair 
& Co., Bahia; and Wilson, Sons k Co., (Linuted), Rio de 


Is under mail contract with the Brazilian Government. The 
nine steamships of the line are especially adapted to the Bra- 
zilian trade and are employed by the Company in a monthly 
service, direct, to and from Neio York and the principal ports 
of Northern Brazil. Every fourth month the steamer goes to 
Manaos, the capital of the Piovince of Amazonas, situated on 
the upper Amazon about 900 miles above its mouth, touching 
at ]*ara going and returning. The service during the interme- 
diate months is between New York and Maranhao direct, 
touching at Para and Ceara, For rates of freight and passage 
and all other information, application may be made to Booth 
& Co., 15 Frankfort St., New York ; Busk & Jevons, 301 Pro- 


duce Exchange, New York ; Faria & Barbara, i*ara ; Ingle- 
hurst & Co., Ceara ; Henry AirUe, Maranhao ; and Teixeira 
Kuiz, Manaos. 

The Red Cross Line of Brazil Mail Steamers 

This line, having Brazilian Government privileges, makes 
monthly departures from New York and Baltimorey with cargo 
and United States Mail for Para, Maranhao, Ceara and Per- 
nambuco. The nine steamers comprising this line have been 
specially built and adapted for the United States and Brazil 
trade, affording every facility and accommodation to shippers, 
direct, to and from the ports above named. Further informa- 
tion may be obtained by applying to Mr. R. B. Borland, Agent, 
112 Pearl street, New York. Steamships of this line are ap- 
pointed to sail from Baltimore on the last day of each 

W. H. Crossman & Bro., 

Nos. 77 and 79 Broad Street, New York, charter and load 
steam and sail vessels, at frequent intervals, as the interest of 
the Brazilian trade may require, for the ports of Para, Manaos, 
Maranhao, Ceara, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Santos and 
other ports on the Amazon and along the Eastern coast of 
South America. 

Thomas Norton's Line to Brazil. 

This regular line of sailing Packets from New York to Per- 
nambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Santos, was established in 1865. 
It has covered loading berths; all necessary facilities for busi- 
ness are at Pier 17, East river. Further information may be 
obtained by applying to Thomas Norton, 104 Wall St., New 


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JUL 11 


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Conmercial and emjgra- 
tional guide to Brazil. 




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JAM 121995